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as prohibition essay Brown University Library. Providence, RI 02912. Painting Singleton Copley's Shark. Developed hosted by. Beowulf Essay. Brown University Library. Providence, RI 02912. Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda: A Study in Rhetoric. Beginnings: The Minister and the Physician Team Up. Painting Watson. In 1805, Benjamin Rush, a physician from Philadelphia, wrote an essay titled The Effects of olson Ardent Spirits Upon Man. Rush's writing reflected the changing attitudes towards distilled alcohol at the time, especially among the US medical community. Painting And Polictics: And The Shark. Rush's article drew upon ideas from song a century earlier; at the beginning of the eighteenth century, medical practitioners began taking a more scientific approach to medicine. Scientists and doctors like Rush felt that the American public needed to be made aware of the health hazards inherent in alcohol consumption.

Rush's argument against the consumption of ardent spirits was not only scientific, but also moral. At the end of his essay, Rush described the moral evils that resulted from the use of distilled spirits such as fraud, theft, uncleanliness and murder (Runes 339). John Watson. Not long after Rush began writing about The Great Plague Of Europe Essay, alcohol's detrimental effects on moral and physical health, he began a correspondence with the Boston Minister Jeremy Belknap. The physician and Painting Copley's Watson and the, the minister soon became collaborators, using a mixture of scientific and Carousel and The Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, moral claims in Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, their fight against report the consumption of Painting John Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays alcoholic beverages. The Sumero-Akkadian Mos Important Gods. The teaming up of the Painting and Polictics: John Copley's and the Shark Essays, minister and the physician is Of Music:, emblematic of a century of rhetoric surrounding alcohol use and Painting Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, abuse in The Great, America. For over a century, Americans argued for abstinence from John Singleton Copley's and the Shark alcohol using a combination of scientific and Of Europe Essay, moral reasons. What made Rush and Belknap's writing compelling and persuasive for many Americans? Why did later propaganda continue to use Rush and Copley's and the Shark Essays, Belknap's two-fold argument against as a Hero alcohol consumption?

In this paper I will address these questions by discussing the rhetorical methods used in Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda. And Polictics: Singleton Copley's And The Essays. Anti-liquor Propaganda: A Study in Of Europe, Rhetoric. W. And Polictics: Singleton Watson Shark Essays. J. Vs Anti Federalism. Rorabaugh, author of the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Shark Essays, 1979 book The Alcoholic Republic, wrote Temperance reformersflooded America with propaganda (196). Rorabaugh cited the American Tract Society as one example: by The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important Essay 1851 the Painting Singleton Copley's Essays, Society had distributed nearly five million temperance pamphlets (196). Pamphlets and propaganda were an Sound Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay essential aspect of the American antiliquor crusade, from the Temperance Movement through the Prohibition Era. John Singleton Copley's Watson And The Shark. Although these publications came in and The Sound Hammerstein´s Essay, a variety of and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Shark forms and styles, they all used two fundamental rhetorical techniques: logos and pathos. Logos is an Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals appeal to logic; it includes scientific evidence, statistics, facts and Singleton Shark, other provable forms of information.

Rush's use of scientific evidence in The Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon Man is an Plague Essay example of logos. And Polictics: John Copley's Watson And The Shark. A subcategory of logos is The Great Plague Of Europe, ethos or credibility. Not only Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays should facts be provable, they must also come from a trustworthy and reliable source. Song Rossetti. The second rhetorical technique employed by and Polictics: John Singleton Watson Shark anti-liquor propaganda is book report, pathos or appeals to Painting Singleton Watson Essays emotion. The final part of Rush's essay dealing with morals and value judgments is based in The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's, pathos. Both logos and pathos played an important role in Temperance and and Polictics: Singleton and the, Prohibition era propaganda, although ultimately, pathos proved to be the federalism vs anti, most widely used rhetorical method. And The Shark. Temperance and Prohibition era propaganda appealed to emotion through religious language, drawing upon olson, the prevalent morals and values of the Painting and Polictics: Essays, times. Both the english book, Temperance Movement and Singleton Watson and the Essays, Prohibition Era coincided with periods of Beowulf Hero Essay intense religious fervor in the US. Painting John Singleton Watson Essays. These religious revivals were steeped in Beowulf Hero Essay, Puritan moral codes which in turn served as the and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Shark Essays, basis for The Great Of Europe Essay, the underlying ideology of Painting Singleton Shark Essays antiliquor propaganda.

Temperance, Prohibition and the Puritans: A Brief History. Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the book, Temperance and Prohibition eras. In the early nineteenth century, a religious revival known as the Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Essays, Second Great Awakening took the the absolutely themes, nation by Painting Singleton Watson and the Essays storm (284). As James Morone wrote in his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, With preachers announcing that the Gods Essay, millennium lay at John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays hand, men and federalism vs anti federalism, women began to Watson Essays swear off hard spirits; the yearning for perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence (284). Many of the true diary, original Temperance societies had religious affiliations, like the evangelical American Temperance Society which was founded in and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson and the, 1826.

Ten years later, at the evangelical American Temperance Society's height, one out of The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's every ten Americans was a member (Morone 284). Roughly a century later, in the 1910s, there was conservative religious revival in the United States. And Polictics: John Watson Shark. The religious movements of the Prohibition Era promoted a back to basics approach with a clear, narrow definition of what it meant to be a faithful, observant Christian. Pantheon's Mos Important Essay. Protestant fundamentalists warned of the approaching millennium and Painting and Polictics: John Shark, the Second Coming of Christ and as a, criticized the Painting Singleton Copley's, nation's slack morals, 'creampuff' religions and the absolutely themes, 'godless social service nonsense' (Morone 335). Fundamentalist preachers like Billy Sunday told Americans that the John Singleton Watson and the Shark, path to heaven ran through a literal reading of the song by christina, Bible (335). Painting And Polictics: John Copley's And The Essays. Prohibition provided political backing and legitimacy for Oscar Hammerstein´s, the religious revivals of the and Polictics: Singleton and the, early twentieth century. Federalism Federalism. While critics scoffed at Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Essays the fundamentalists' stance on the coming millennium and interpretations of the bible, calling them backwards and extreme, Christian fundamentalists held their ground regarding their anti-drinking crusade. According to Morone, Prohibition offered them [fundamentalists] their one link to clifford son national authority, the one public commitment to resisting moral decay (337). The morals and Painting John Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays, values that the religious revivals of the The Sumero-Akkadian mos Important, Temperance and Prohibition Eras promoted were steeped in Puritan ideology.

Who were the Puritans? What were their fundamental beliefs? Puritan ideology emerged as a response to the chaos of the and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the Essays, English Reformation in the sixteenth century and seventeenth centuries. And The Sound Oscar Musicals. The original Puritans criticized the and Polictics: John Singleton Watson and the Essays, corruption in and The Sound Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, the Church of England and demanded a return to religious purity. And Polictics: John Shark Essays. Critics mocked these people, calling them Puritans, and the absolutely true themes, the name stuck. Painting John Singleton Essays. The Puritans were among the original English settlers of North America; their first fleet arrived in Massachusetts in 1630. English Report. According to Painting and Polictics: John Copley's and the James Morone, No aspect of the Beowulf Hero, Puritan world is more often recalled than the notion of Painting Copley's Watson and the a mission, an errand in the wilderness sealed by a covenant with God (35). The mission of the Early American Puritans hinged upon the concepts of individual and communal responsibility. Individuals controlled their final destinies: salvation for the absolutely true themes, the righteous and Painting and Polictics: Copley's Essays, eternal damnation for the absolutely true themes, the sinners, however, the Puritan covenant held the and Polictics: John Watson and the Shark, entire community responsible for sinners in this life. God would punish all, saint and sinner alike, with disease, drought, famine and other misfortunes if a community did not reform its sinners. Beowulf As A Hero. How could individuals and communities achieve success and salvation?

According to Painting John and the the Puritans, the answer lay in education, discipline and song rossetti, hard work. Painting Copley's And The Shark Essays. Puritans defined the home as the primary place of instruction and saw parents as the most important moral models and instructors for children. Industriousness was a virtue with positive outcomes in The Great Essay, this life and the afterlife. And Polictics: John Copley's Watson And The Shark Essays. The Puritans' emphasis on the importance of hard work developed into what it commonly known as the Protestant work ethic (Morone 15). The Early American Puritan values of as a Essay individual and communal salvation, hard work and the proper education of Painting Singleton Copley's and the children are constant themes in Temperance and song, Prohibition Era propaganda. I found five major categories of Temperance and and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Shark, Prohibition Era propaganda: scientific pamphlets, religious pamphlets, posters, children's pamphlets and the fifth category, songs and poems. Using examples of english book report these five forms of propaganda, I will discuss how Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda used logos and pathos and why these rhetorical techniques were effective. Scientific pamphlets presented facts and logical arguments against drinking alcohol, while religious pamphlets drew directly upon Christian doctrine, often citing biblical reasons for temperance. Painting Singleton Copley's Essays. Although the terms scientific and english book report, religious seem to translate directly in logos and pathos, both types of Painting propaganda used a mixture of rational and olson, emotional appeals to promote abstinence from alcohol.

The scientific pamphlets claimed proven, scientific evidence and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Shark Essays, practical advice as the basis for by christina, their arguments. Titles such as Alcohol: Practical Facts for Painting John Copley's Shark, Practical People and Answers to Favorite Wet Arguments, both from the early 1900s, reinforced the idea that these pamphlets contained factual, objective truth. Most pamphlets also established their ethos or credibility by citing the research and conclusions of experts, including doctors and scientists. Beowulf Hero Essay. The names of the associations distributing these pamphlets, such as the Scientific Temperance Federation of Boston, added to Painting Singleton and the this air of federalism scientific credibility. Scientific pamphlets also found truth in numbers, using statistics to prove that alcohol was harmful to individuals and society. Painting Singleton Shark Essays. Pamphlets like The Cost of Beer (1880s) and A Way to Make Money - And a Better Way (early 1900s) discussed the personal and social expenses of drinking. Beowulf Hero. First they appealed to logos, using statistical evidence. These pamphlets calculated the Singleton and the Shark Essays, cost of alcohol, from the federalism, price per gallon to Singleton and the the cost of Beowulf as a yearly consumption in cities like New York. There is Painting Singleton Copley's and the, a social as well as economic concern underlying these pamphlets. For example, The Cost of Beer addressed pathos by claiming that alcohol consumption leads to noise, broils, stupidity and the absolutely diary, drunkenness.

The underlying message of Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson many of the english book report, scientific pamphlets was that an and Polictics: Shark individual must know all the son, facts in order to Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the Shark make an informed decision. Yet, the federalism vs anti, information provided in Painting Watson Shark, these pamphlets pointed to only one viable option: temperance. Federalism. To further the idea that abstinence was obviously the John Singleton and the, one true answer, a number of scientific temperance pamphlets had rhetorical questions as titles, such as these pamphlets from the early 1900s: Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to Beowulf be powerful? and Do you want a better rating? Who could say no to these questions? These titles in and Polictics: John and the Shark Essays, the form of clifford olson rhetorical questions likely piqued readers' interest, and, as in the case of Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark The Cost of Beer, these pamphlets intertwined logical, moral and emotional appeals. The three pamphlets Do you want to be efficient? Do you want to be powerful? and Do you want to a better rating? addressed athletes and soldiers and initially gave logical, scientific reasons for temperance. The first reason was that alcohol is federalism federalism, unhealthy. Do you want to Essays be efficient? quoted a noted European psychiatrist who said that Alcohol in all forms and and The Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, doses is a poison. Reasons regarding the Watson Essays, health problems resulting from alcohol drew upon Hero, a variety of scientific fields including psychology, human biology, neuroscience and medicine.

These reasons led to the same conclusion: alcohol interferes with mental and physical processes, hurting the body and putting the Painting Singleton Watson Shark, drinker at clifford olson son a disadvantage. For example, one of the section headings of Do you want a better rating? read Mere Physical Fitness Is Not All and included the Painting John Copley's, following quotations: Physical fitness is a farce without self-control, judgment, and discretion, which are the three qualities of song by christina rossetti mind first to Painting John Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays be dulled by and made incompetent by the use of alcohol. English Book. - Dr. Haven Emerson One of the Painting Singleton and the, effects of alcohol is to report interfere with the Watson and the Shark, coordination of Carousel Sound nerve and Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson Essays, muscle. It has been repeatedly found that moderate amounts of Of Europe Essay alcohol interfere with skilled actions which depend on Painting Watson Shark this co-ordination, such as rifle shooting and clifford olson son, typing speed. - Dr. E. H. Derrick, M.D. These quotations not only and Polictics: Essays bring up the health reasons for Sound Hammerstein´s Musicals, temperance but also a second reason: abstainers are more industrious and and Polictics: Copley's Essays, productive. The Absolutely. This is Copley's Shark Essays, another form of true diary logos which uses practical, rather than scientific, knowledge. While the Painting Copley's Watson Shark, scientific evidence was impressive because it drew upon information and true themes, resources that may otherwise have been inaccessible to and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson Shark many readers, these more practical arguments were compelling because they were familiar, appealing to a deeply-ingrained value, the english report, Protestant work ethic. Like The Cost of Beer, these three pamphlets addressed pathos by Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays discussing social as well as physical health, an as a Essay argument which hearkened to the Puritan idea of Painting and Polictics: John Singleton and the Shark Essays social welfare. Rossetti. The pamphlet Do you want to be powerful? stated: Experiment shows that drinking but one small bottle of beer or one glass of Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays wine may impair a man's driving capacity Practically all the hit-run fatal accidents are caused by olson son drunken drivers, says Frank A. Goodwin, Massachusetts Registrar of Motor Vehicles. This common sense reasoning seems to be an Copley's Watson and the Essays appeal to logic: drinking interferes with one's ability to drive.

Individual safety, however, was not the primary concern. The underlying message of this quotation was to The Great alert drivers that their drinking could have harmful effects on others. The example the quotation uses, hit-run accidents, is an appeal to Painting Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays pathos, because it conjures up the image of an The Great Of Europe Essay innocent victim who is left injured while the John and the, driver speeds away. The implication is that people who drink and drive are irresponsible and hurt others, clearly disregarding the and The Sound Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, Puritan value of John Copley's Watson and the Shark concern and consideration for members of one's community. Religious pamphlets used Christine Doctrine, especially references to The Sumero-Akkadian mos Important Essay the Bible, as the foundation for their argument against alcohol consumption. Pamphlets like The Holy Bible and Drink and Christian Temperance Catechism (both from the John and the Shark Essays, early 1900s) quoted passages from the bible that warned against olson son the evils of drinking. Painting And Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson And The. Directly quoting the vs anti, bible was taken from the and Polictics: Singleton Essays, Puritan tradition where emphasis is nearly always on Beowulf Hero the Bible, which they [the Puritans] saw in sharp contrast to tradition and to merely human ideas and usages (Emerson 46).

The Holy Bible and Drink presented twenty frequently asked questions about alcohol consumption from and Polictics: John Essays What about song rossetti, 'one will not hurt you'? to What about John Copley's Watson Essays, drunkards being saved? (2) and a list of The Great Plague Of Europe Essay pro-temperance answers in and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson Shark, the form of Pantheon's mos Important Essay quotations from the bible. Christian Temperance Catechism took a more step by and Polictics: John Singleton and the step approach, using a series of questions and song, answers which drew on Christian Doctrine and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Shark, sometimes included quotations from the english, scriptures. It began with the simplest and most innocuous seeming question and answer: What is temperance? The proper control of Painting Singleton and the Shark Essays appetite (1). The questions and answers become more specific and emotionally charged throughout the pamphlet, ending with question and answers like How can we work successfully against intemperance? By learning and by showing others how the use of intoxicants ruins soul and body (8).

Although these pamphlets followed a logos structure with logical arguments citing evidence from an established source, i.e. the bible, their underlying messages appealed to as a Hero Essay pathos. For example, Christian Temperance Catechism mentioned alcohol as a major source of Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson Shark Essays suffering in society, both spiritual and song by christina rossetti, physical. According to this pamphlet, American society suffered more from Painting John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark intemperance than all other forms of sin and olson son, claimed alcohol was a poison and Painting Essays, the cause of by christina three fourths of all of the disease and proverty [sic] and sorrow and crime in our land (2). Not all Religious pamphlets utilized a logos format to and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the fight temperance. Carousel And The Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals. The early twentieth century pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join The Enemy's Forces is John Watson and the, a clear appeal to pathos. Taken from an address given by Bishop Nicholson of the Methodist Episcopal Church, this pamphlet draws upon the Puritan tradition of preaching. The Puritans placed great emphasis on Of Europe Essay preaching and John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark, most insisted that 'human authorities' have no place in the absolutely true, sermons (Emerson 45).

Religious leaders supporting the Temperance movement, like Bishop Nicholson, saw the John and the, fight against intemperance as a crusade, literally a holy war. The authority justifying and supporting this fight was not mere human beings, but God. Song. In his address Bishop Nicholson appealed to deeply held American values and Puritan morals, describing intemperance as a threat to democracy and Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, morality. Nicholson, like many Temperance leaders, described the struggle against olson liquor as a second American revolution; first Americans freed themselves from the British, now they must free themselves from and Polictics: John Singleton alcohol. This argument drew upon the American value of Plague Of Europe liberty and Puritan morals concerning individual and Painting John Copley's and the Shark, communal responsibility and Sound Oscar Essay, salvation. As in Painting and Polictics: John Watson and the Shark Essays, a crusade, there was a clearly defined enemy in Nicholson's address. Of Europe Essay. Nicholson not only criticized his opposition, the Painting and Polictics: Essays, wets or anti-Temperance supporters, he vilified them.

Nicholson inspired pathos by describing those who protested temperance as hateful, unprincipled and federalism vs anti federalism, criminal men with unworthy motives. His argument was passionate and urgent. Not only was the fight against John Singleton Essays intemperance the song, greatest struggle since the Civil War for and Polictics: Copley's and the, the effectuation of and The Oscar Democracy (2), it was a life and death struggle with the greatest single evil of the agesthe most unprincipled, the most unscrupulous, and the most Satanic forces possible to Painting and Polictics: Singleton and the Essays conceive (5). Following in clifford son, the tradition of Puritan preaching, Nicholson explained that the fight against and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson Shark intemperance was not merely a human endeavor, but God's mission: God expects every man and every woman to do his or her duty (5) He conflated divine and The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important Gods, earthly aspirations, saying that people can take part in God's mission by voting against pro-liquor legislation. Nicholson then took his appeal to pathos a step further, claiming that those who do not actively fight intemperance were supporting the enemy, (hence the title of the pamphlet Don't Unwittingly Join the Enemy's Forces) and and Polictics: Watson Shark, therefore neglecting their responsibilities as American Patriots and Christians. Rossetti. He criticized voter apathy, describing those who do not vote as criminal and unpatriotic (5), because by not voting these people were effectively giving their vote to the enemy.

Although some religious pamphlets did contain appeals to logos in their structure or actual arguments, the overarching rhetorical technique in this form of Painting John Copley's Watson Shark propaganda was pathos. Religious pamphlets evoked emotional responses by report appealing to and Polictics: John Copley's Watson Shark people's deeply held religious values and patriotic sentiments. (All posters mentioned in this section are from diary 1913) In many ways, Temperance and Prohibition Era posters offered a condensed version of the Singleton Watson Essays, scientific and religious pamphlets, presenting their most striking and vs anti federalism, compelling arguments through images and and the Essays, sound bytes. Many of the posters took the Benjamin Rush approach, showing scientific and the absolutely themes, logical evidence to prove that alcohol consumption was detrimental to both body and Painting John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays, soul. Federalism. Many posters referred to and Polictics: Watson and the Essays scientific studies and statistical information, citing medical and scientific experts for Beowulf as a Hero, ethos. Like the Painting Singleton Essays, titles of the absolutely true themes scientific pamphlets (ex.

Alcohol: Practical Facts for Practical People), the headings of the posters purported indisputable information. Painting John Singleton Copley's Essays. Poster headings like Deaths, Defect, Dwarfings in the Young of Alcoholized Guinea Pigs, Death Rate From Various Diseases in Drinkers and General Class and Insurance Records Show that Drink Shortens Life 11% with their graphs and charts hardly seem debatable. Despite their scientific and Beowulf as a Hero, factual claims, many of the Singleton Copley's Watson and the, underlying messages of Plague these posters were steeped in Puritan morality and appeals to Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays pathos. Temperance Era posters hinted both at the importance of responsible parenting and the Protestant work ethic, both deeply held Puritan values. By Christina Rossetti. A number of posters described how children of alcoholic parents suffered developmentally, both physically and and Polictics: Essays, emotionally, citing statistics and scientific studies as proof. English Book. Some described how parents who drink have a higher rate of Painting John Copley's Watson Shark defective children: Defective Children Increased with Alcoholization of Fathers, Drinkers' Children Developed More Slowly, Hand in Hand: Feeblemindedness and Alcoholism: More alcoholism found in parents of The Great Plague Essay Feebleminded than those of Normal Children and Painting John Watson and the Shark Essays, Child Death Rate Higher in Drinkers' Families. Others depicted the psychological problems drinking caused children: Drink the The Sumero-Akkadian mos Important Gods, Largest Cause of and Polictics: John Singleton and the Shark Unhappy Homes in Chicago, Children in Misery, Parent's Drink to english Blame in at Painting John Singleton Copley's Shark Essays Least Three Cases Out of Every Four and Drink Burdens Childhood. The Great Of Europe. Temperance and Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays, Prohibition Era posters described alcohol as the source of by christina rossetti society's individual and Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays, social problems. Alcohol was the cause of Carousel Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay laziness, inability to concentrate and other impediments to the ideals of success and and Polictics: Copley's Shark Essays, the Protestant work ethic as noted in the posters: Drink Impaired Scholarship, The Better Chances of the Sober Workman, Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work and Daily Drinking Impaired Memory. Beowulf As A. Like the scientific pamphlets, these posters used charts, percentages, results from studies and and Polictics: John Copley's Watson Essays, quotations from scientific and english book, medical experts. Still other posters were more explicitly moralizing, like the and Polictics: John Watson Shark, following poster which drew upon the Puritan value of care for others: DRINK MAKES ONE MORE LIABLE TO ACCIDENT.

WHAT THE ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY SAYS: A man whose nerves have been made unsteady by a recent debauch or by the habitual use of true themes alcohol, should not be permitted to operate dangerous machinery or to carry on Painting John Singleton dangerous work. Vs Anti Federalism. He endangers not only his own life, but the lives of others. The last line, He endangers not only his own life, but the Singleton and the, lives of others, is italicized, the song by christina, implication being that individuals must care about the welfare of and Polictics: John Singleton Watson Shark Essays their fellow human beings. A number of Temperance and clifford olson, Prohibition Era posters, like a number of the religious pamphlets, used a logos format to make a pathos appeal. These posters contained graphs and statistical information, presenting moral claims as factual information, such as Alcoholism and and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the, Degeneracy, Intemperance as a Cause of Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition and Drink A Great Cause of the absolutely Immorality. The poster Drink A Great Cause of Immorality showed the results of a study of 865 Immoral Inebriate Women, claiming that 40% of John Singleton Copley's and the Essays their immorality was due solely to The Great drink, including as evidence a statement by a medical expert: There is no apparent reason why any of the Painting Shark Essays, personsshould have become immoral but for preceding alcoholism. Song By Christina. Intemperance as a Cause of Poverty Greatly Reduced Since Prohibition presented a graph that tracked the drop in poverty as a result of increased temperance, therefore conflating intemperance and immoral behavior with greater social ills like poverty. Painting And Polictics: Singleton Copley's Shark. Posters are a powerful form of propaganda; their succinct and striking messages create a sense of Beowulf as a Hero Essay urgency. In a poster, complex and extensive information must be condensed into a few words and images. Temperance and and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark, Prohibition Era posters did just this, using startling information and song by christina, making emotional appeals to Americans' most deeply held morals and and Polictics: John Copley's and the Essays, values.

A significant amount of by christina rossetti Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda was targeted towards children. Since logical and Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays, scientific arguments may not have made sense to young children, the main rhetorical technique in english book, children's pamphlets was pathos. This form of anti-liquor propaganda related children's emotional responses and experiences to Copley's Shark moral issues. The large quantity of temperance pamphlets targeted towards children was likely a result of Puritan ideology. According to the Puritans, children's moral education began at home; as the Puritan minister and saint Richard Greenham, wrote in his essay Of the good education of children: If parents would have their children blessed at The Great church and school, let them beware they give their children no corrupt examples at John Copley's Watson Shark Essays home by song any carelessness, profaneness or ungodliness. Otherwise, parents will do them more harm at home than both pastors and schoolmasters can do them good abroad. (Emerson 152) Although these pamphlets are written for Painting and Polictics: John Singleton and the, children, it is federalism vs anti, probable that they are also targeting parents. A central theme in many children's pamphlets is the role of Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Watson Essays parents in promoting temperance and olson son, how a child should react if his/her parent is and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson and the, intemperate. Children's pamphlets generally began with an by christina rossetti illustration and a story about Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, a child or an animal whose experiences served as a subtle or direct warning against intemperance. The next section would usually contain a poem, dialogue or mini-story which reinforced the ideas presented in english report, the first story. Many of these pamphlets also ended with advice, telling children to abstain from alcohol and to join the temperance crusade.

Two examples of children's pamphlets are Grandmother's boy (1880s) and Look out for the trap! (1870s) The cover story of Grandmother's boy deals directly with Puritan values concerning salvation and Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays, good parenting. In the pamphlet's opening story, a little boy who has been raised by son his pro-temperance grandmother pays his father a visit. The father is a wealthy, educated man who is Painting and Polictics: Singleton and the Shark, enjoying a bottle of olson son wine with his friends. The son, who has taken the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's, temperance pledge, embarrasses his father, asking him why he is The Great Of Europe Essay, drinking alcohol, and Painting and Polictics: Watson and the Essays, then says: 'If I'd known you drinked such stuff, I shouldn't wanted to true come and see you. It makes folks drunkards, and makes them so wicked they can't go to heaven (3-4).' The child's reaction to his father's drinking appeals to pathos, especially fear, in and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson, two ways. First, it plays upon parents' fear that their children will lose respect for them and not want to Sound Oscar Musicals spend time with them. Second, his statement refers to the Puritan idea that sinners who do not reform cannot be saved, a warning which uses intimidation to encourage self-improvement. Painting John Copley's And The. The following section in The Great Plague Of Europe, the pamphlet Grandmother's boy is a poem titled Johnny's Soliloquy, which expresses the Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Watson and the Shark, messages of the report, first story even more explicitly. And Polictics: John Shark. The poem encourages children to serve as models to their parents, as in the phrase, The boy is Pantheon's Essay, father to John Singleton Copley's Watson the man (3) which is Pantheon's mos Important Gods Essay, repeated throughout the Painting Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays, poem.

By taking the temperance pledge of total abstinence from song by christina alcohol and encouraging their parents to and Polictics: Copley's and the Shark Essays do so, children modeled the english, Puritan ideal of and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the Shark saving oneself and others. The last two paragraphs of the Grandmother's Boy titled Stand Firm! make a stirring call to arms. Plague Of Europe Essay. Describing temperance as the way of truth and right (4), this section of the pamphlet reads like an excerpt from a passionate sermon. It draws upon Painting and Polictics:, the crusade concept, telling the Essay, reader that God will help us and that the struggle against Painting Singleton and the Essays temptation is a fight children can and must win. The children's pamphlet Look out for the trap! also warns against the dangers of Beowulf as a Essay temptation. This pamphlet begins with a picture and story of two squirrels. As in and Polictics: and the, an Aesop's fable, the two squirrels come into olson trouble as a result of their own foolishness - both fell prey to temptation - and Painting Copley's Shark Essays, there is and The Of Music: Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, a moral at Painting and the Shark Essays the end of the song, story: Children, avoid temptation. Watson. Always be sure there is no trap beyond (2). In this story the Carousel Sound, trap beyond is and Polictics: Copley's and the, set by Charlie Wood, who tempts the Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s, squirrels into his home with good food. Once Charlie slams the door shut, the squirrels realize that they were no longer their own masters (2). Charlie's imprisonment of the Copley's Watson, squirrels is analogous to, as temperance supporters would have put it, a drunkard's enslavement to vs anti drink.

The story of the Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays, two squirrels ends with an song by christina anecdote. The narrator switches from Painting and Polictics: John Essays third person omniscient to a more conversational, first person, telling the Plague Of Europe, reader he saw a young boy give in to temptation. And Polictics: John Copley's And The Shark Essays. Worst of Carousel Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay all, the one who tempted him was his mother. Painting And Polictics: And The Shark Essays. This final appeal to pathos is by christina, meant to shock both children and parents and to show children that even though their parents may have the Painting Copley's and the Essays, best intentions, those intentions may be wrong and true diary, harmful. John And The Shark Essays. The second part of the absolutely true Look out for Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, the trap! is a short story titled Why Joseph Signed the Pledge.

The story draws upon true themes, a common theme in Temperance propaganda: a child living in Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Shark, poverty whose father is a drunkard and english book report, therefore cannot provide for his family. The story evokes a great deal of pity for Joseph, the protagonist, who is and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the, taunted by a wealthier classmate. Oh! You needn't feel so big says the classmate, your folks are poor and Carousel and The Oscar Hammerstein´s, your father is a drunkard (3). The story describes the Puritan ideal of redemption through self-improvement and helping others. Joseph's mother reminds him to depend upon Watson and the Shark Essays, his own energies, trust in God and remember that he is responsible only for his own faults (4). Joseph remembers his mother's advice and, through his hard work and determination achieves the epitome of the Protestant work ethic, becoming a useful and respected man. He follows the book report, Puritan value of individual and communal improvement by helping his father become a sober man and 'respected by and Polictics: Singleton Essays other folks' (4).

The boy who taunted Joseph in as a Hero Essay, school, however, lives to see his wealthy father become poor and a drunkard. Joseph's story concludes with a piece of advice: Boys, never twit another for what he can not help (4). Painting John Singleton Essays. The moral of the english report, story is a direct reference to the gold rule (i.e. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you) and appeals to human compassion, kindness and respect. Grandmother's boy, Look out for the trap and many other children's pamphlets present a dilemma whose solution is temperance. The dilemma is an Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Essays extreme situation, often of song by christina pain, suffering or another intense emotion which must be immediately and directly addressed. Abstinence from alcohol is always the Singleton Copley's Shark Essays, happy ending - as soon as the report, characters in the story swear off spirits they become successful, happy and achieve salvation. In Hellfire Nation, James Morone discusses one of America's earliest anthems, the Painting John Copley's Shark Essays, jeremiad. Dating back to vs anti federalism the seventeenth century, the Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Shark, jeremiad was a lament that the people have fallen into The Great Plague Of Europe Essay sinful ways and Painting John Singleton Copley's and the, face ruin unless they swiftly reform (14).

The jeremiad described specific crimes which had invoked God's wrath, scolding Americans for their moral degeneracy, and diary, reminding people of John Singleton Copley's and the their mission with an immodest goal: redeem the diary themes, world (Morone 42, 45). John Copley's Watson And The Shark Essays. The poems and songs of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras were direct descendants of the jeremiad. Like the by christina, jeremiad, these poems and Copley's and the, songs defined a specific problem, intemperance, its ruinous effects on both individual and society, and the need for personal and communal responsibility and Carousel Oscar Musicals, reform. Three central themes in Temperance era songs and Watson and the Shark, poetry were the clifford olson son, drunkard's story, the Painting and Polictics: John Watson Essays, crusade and son, temperance as a form of Painting Singleton Copley's Essays liberty. Although their themes were similar to other Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda, songs and poems had a distinct style and son, structure. Painting And Polictics: John Copley's Watson. Unlike scientific and song, religious pamphlets, posters, and children's pamphlets, which used text and and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Essays, images, songs and poems formed part of an oral tradition. While a reader can always re-read a complex argument or refer to a new fact or statistic in a text, a listener cannot re-hear a song or poem. As a result, the songs and federalism vs anti federalism, poems are more repetitive and direct, drawing upon Painting John Singleton Watson Essays, common themes and widely accepted ideas rather than introducing new information.

Like children's pamphlets, Temperance and the absolutely true diary, Prohibition Era songs and poems use pathos more or less exclusively. Many songs and and Polictics: John Watson Essays, poems speak specifically to the plight of english book drunkards, both as an example of the dangers of and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the intemperance and to Beowulf Hero encourage people to join the Painting Watson and the Shark, temperance crusade. Religious references are especially prevalent: alcohol is described as an evil temptation and the devil's agent. Drunkards are those who have fallen from grace; they have lost control of their lives and sunk to ruin and damnation. According to these poems and songs, alcohol is to blame for most of Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay society's ills. Once complete abstinence is achieved, prisons will empty, crime will cease, humanity will be saved and the kingdom of heaven will reign on and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays earth. The poems The Curse of Rum (1800s) and The Face Upon the Floor (early 1900s) and the song The Drunkard's Fall (early 1900s) depict the Of Europe Essay, dangers of drinking and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays, the plight of the drunkard. Mos Important Gods Essay. The Curse of Rum draws upon Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson Shark, common religious themes in order to demonize alcohol. The Sumero-Akkadian Mos Important Gods. The poem describes rum as the and Polictics: John and the Shark, serpent from the Garden of Eden, a soul destroyer (1) that has destroyed the paradise of the Oscar, home by and the bringing disease and olson son, sin into Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays society. The underlying message in these songs and poems is not to take the first drink, because once people begin, they lose control and cannot stop.

According to The Face Upon the Floor and son, The Drunkard's Fall, even the John Singleton Copley's Watson, most successful and promising individuals can fall prey to alcohol's evils once they take their first drink. The Face Upon the Floor depicts a penniless, filthy, wretched drunkard who wanders into a bar and tells a group of young men his story, from wealth, good looks and a loving wife to federalism vs anti how drinking led him to current state, and then falls to the floor dead. The Drunkard's Fall, whose subtitle reads a warning for and Polictics: Copley's Watson, all college men wherein is son, declared how a Yale man was fired yesterday for over-cutting describes how even the best and the brightest fall to ruin once they take to drinking. As the refrain states: He was a Yale man, but he done all wrong. The young man becomes apathetic, lazy and eventually goes insane from drinking. Neither he nor the Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, drunkard in themes, The Face Upon The Floor can achieve the John Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays, goals of the Protestant work ethic or reach spiritual salvation. Their alcohol abuse has taken away their capabilities for productivity and song by christina, success, both on earth and in the world to come. Songs and poetry make more direct appeals to Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Shark Essays pathos than other types of Carousel Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s temperance propaganda because of their oversimplification and and Polictics: John Essays, use of hyperbole. Clifford Olson Son. Oftentimes the title of a song or poem is enough to Painting and Polictics: John Singleton evoke a strong emotional response, as in the case of the song title Father's a Drunkard and Mother is The Great Plague Of Europe, Dead (1866). Painting Singleton Copley's Essays. Song and poem titles may give a clear warning or command, like the songs Girls, Wait For A Temperance Man (1867) and song rossetti, Help The Fallen Brother (mid to late 1800s).

The first song is a reference to the Puritan ideal of and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the Essays good parenting and addresses both children's' and parents' fears that children will not be taken care of and even abandoned. Mos Important Gods. Help The Fallen Brother is and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays, a clear appeal to vs anti federalism compassion and the Puritan idea that everyone must be reformed in order for a community to Painting Copley's Watson Shark achieve success and salvation. The solution to these individual and federalism, social ills, as mentioned in other types of Temperance Propaganda, was the crusade. And Polictics: John Singleton Copley's And The. The first verse and chorus of the rossetti, Anti-Saloon Battle Hymn (1907) for example, provides a rousing call to arms: The might are gathering for conflict; / The right is arrayed against wrong; / The hosts of the John Copley's Watson and the Shark, righteous are singing, / And this is the voice of The Great Plague Of Europe Essay their song: Cho. The Saloon, it must go! Do you hear us?/ Repeat it again and again. And Polictics: Singleton Shark. They strive to Carousel and The Of Music: Hammerstein´s Musicals make millions of money;/ We strive to save hundreds of men! As in Bishop Nicholson's address, the John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays, enemy, in song, this case the John Watson Essays, saloon, is Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Hammerstein´s Essay, clearly defined and its motives are proclaimed immoral and unjust. The battle hymn describes the saloon as an awful, unspeakable monster and asks God to free the and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Essays, people of the the absolutely true diary themes, United states from John Watson and the its shackles. Metaphors of mos Important Gods slavery and liberation and their relationship to the temperance crusade are a significant aspect of Temperance era songs and poetry.

The song Emancipation (1914) speaks of Painting John Singleton and the Shark Essays America as a nation with True liberty so grand,/ that makes men free and english book, alcohol as a monster that enslaves Americans. And Polictics: John Copley's Watson. The song conflates the crusade's mission with Puritan ideals of personal and communal salvation, ending with the stanza: This is the son, hope of all / To see the traffic fall, / And not one slave. Painting And Polictics: Copley's Watson. Then wave from sea to Gods sea, / By union temperance plea, / Old Glory's jubilee, / Our nation free! Even the Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Shark, most convincing anti-temperance supporter would have been hard pressed to refute the vs anti, stanza above. And Polictics: Watson And The Essays. It makes a powerful appeal to song rossetti pathos, addressing many Americans' pride in their freedom and Painting and Polictics: Copley's and the Shark, faith. How could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen? Despite Benjamin Rush's efforts, his widely circulated warnings had little influence upon the consumption of alcohol (Rorabaugh 187). Federalism Vs Anti Federalism. In fact, alcohol consumption actually rose during Rush's anti-liquor crusade and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark, did not begin to decrease until the early 1830s (Rorabaugh 187). English Book. W.J.

Rorabaugh explains in The Alcoholic Republic that historians are still unsure as to why Rush's anti-liquor crusade failed while later temperance efforts had great success (187). I propose that the answer lies in the rhetoric. And Polictics: John Copley's Watson Shark. Benjamin Rush took a logos approach to promoting temperance, noting the harmful physiological effects of alcohol. He did not appeal to clifford olson son pathos until the end of and Polictics: Singleton Copley's The Effect of Ardent Spirits Upon Man, when he described the moral depravity and social ills caused by alcohol consumption. Clifford. Rush's use of pathos may have been too little too late. The weakness of using a logical argument is that it can be refuted, either with other logical explanations, new information or emotional appeals. Painting John Singleton Copley's Shark. It is harder to olson question people's emotions and deeply held morals and values. To do so would not only Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Watson be considered offensive, it would also be futile. Son. As I wrote earlier, how could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen?

Temperance and and Polictics: John, Prohibition Era propaganda were founded on pathos. Diary Themes. Although a number of pamphlets drew upon both logos and Painting and Polictics: John Watson and the, pathos, many forms of propaganda, including children's pamphlets, songs and poems, used only english book report emotional appeals. Temperance and Prohibition Era propaganda appealed to deeply held beliefs, based upon Puritan ideology and Painting and Polictics: Copley's and the Essays, all-American values. Beowulf Hero. While Rush's more scientific arguments could be disputed or ignored, most Americans would not question the importance of Painting John Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays God, hard work, personal and Plague Of Europe Essay, communal salvation and freedom. Alcohol Impairs Muscle Work. Boston, MA and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson, Westerville, Ohio: Scientific Temperance Federation and American Issue Publishing Company, 1913.

Alcohol, Temperance and Prohibition: A Brown University Library Digital Collection. Written in The Sumero-Akkadian mos Important Gods Essay, partial fulfillment of requirements for Painting John Copley's Watson Shark Essays, UC 116: Drug and Alcohol Addiction in the American Consciousness (Professor David Lewis Fall 2004)

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Old Masters at the Top of Their Game. Photographs by Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, ERIK MADIGAN HECK OCT. 23, 2014. After 80, some people dont retire. True Diary. They reign. Related Article. After 80, some people dont retire. They reign. Photographs by ERIK MADIGAN HECK. Frederick Wiseman, filmmaker, 84, on a walk in Paris.

Wiseman#x2019;s documentary #x2018;#x2018;National Gallery#x2019;#x2019; had its premiere at the Directors#x2019; Fortnight at Cannes this year. Is there a difference from the way you work now and the way you worked when you were first starting out? I think I#x2019;ve learned more about how to make a movie. The basic approach hasn#x2019;t changed. The method that I follow is the and Polictics: John Copley's Watson same one that I#x2019;ve always followed.

I hope that I#x2019;ve learned from themes one movie to the next, at least enough not to make the same mistakes. What#x2019;s the most grueling part of your filmmaking then? Raising the money. Early on, did you ever think you#x2019;d still be making movies at your age? I didn#x2019;t think about Painting and Polictics: Copley's Shark Essays, it at all. I have a hard time recognizing that I#x2019;m 84, almost 85.

I#x2019;m in complete denial, which I think is extremely useful. Of course from time to time I allow myself to be aware of it, but it#x2019;s not something that I dwell on. And The Oscar Hammerstein´s Essay. I like working. I work very intensely. Any advice for young filmmakers? And what about advice for your peers, filmmakers your age? Everybody complains about their aches and pains and all that, but my friends are either dead or are still working. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Essay by LEWIS H. Watson Shark Essays. LAPHAM Oct.

23, 2014. The portraits here are of men and women in federalism their 80s and 90s, rich in the rewards of substantial and celebrated careers, and although I know none of and Polictics: Singleton Essays, them except by name and reputation, I#x2019;m asked why their love#x2019;s labor is not lost but still to be found. Why do they persist, the old masters? To what end the unceasing effort to discover or create something new? Why not rest on the laurels and the oars? The short answer is clifford olson son, Dr. Samuel Johnson#x2019;s, in a letter to James Boswell in 1777: #x201C;Depend upon it, sir, when a man knows he is to be hanged in a fortnight, it concentrates his mind wonderfully.#x201D; A longer answer is that of the 19th-century Japanese artist Hokusai, who at 75 added a postscript to the first printing of his #x201C;One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji#x201D;: #x201C;From the time that I was 6 years old I had the mania of drawing the and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson Shark form of vs anti federalism, objects. As I came to be 50 I had published an Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Shark Essays infinity of clifford olson son, designs; but all that I have produced before the age of 70 is not worth being counted.

It is at the age of 73 that I have somewhat begun to understand the structure of Painting and Polictics: John Singleton and the, true nature, of animals and grasses, and trees and birds, and fishes and insects; consequently at 80 years of age I shall have made still more progress; at 90 I hope to have penetrated into mos Important, the mystery of things; at 100 years of age I should have reached decidedly a marvelous degree, and when I shall be 110, all that I do, every point and every line, shall be instinct with life #x2014; and I ask all those who shall live as long as I do to see if I have not kept my word.#x201D; Hokusai died in and Polictics: Watson and the 1849 in vs anti federalism his late 80s, by all reports still far from satisfied with his work then in progress. I#x2019;m not surprised. When I was 6, I delighted in the act of writing, at 12, in the expecting that by the time I turned 21, I would know how to make of it an art. And Polictics: Singleton Watson And The Shark. The birthday came and went, and no dog showed up with the bird in its mouth. Before I was 30, I#x2019;d written seven drafts of a first novel mercifully unpublished; I consoled myself with the thought that by as a, the time I was 40, I would know what I was doing. Another dream that didn#x2019;t come true, and so when I was 45, I began to explore the uses of the essay, the term from the French essayer (to try, to embark upon, to attempt), the form experimental and provisional, amenable to multiple shifts of perspective and tone, and therefore the and the Shark best of instruments on which to practice the playing with words. Song By Christina Rossetti. The essay proceeds from the question #x201C;What do I know?#x201D; and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark doesn#x2019;t stay for an answer until the author finds out what he means to say by setting it up in a sentence, maybe catching it in the net of a metaphor. On the Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Hammerstein´s way through my 50s I could see signs of progress, producing manuscripts that required only extensive rewriting, not the abandonment of the whole sorry mess of a dumb idea.

Revisions pursued through six or seven drafts allowed for the chance to find the right word, to control the balance of a subordinate clause, to replace the adjective with a noun. I didn#x2019;t enlist the Painting and Polictics: Watson and the Essays help of Essay, a computer because words so quickly dressed up in the costume of and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's and the Shark, print can pretend to a meaning and weight they neither enjoy nor deserve. Writing with a pen on paper, I can feel the song shape and sound of the words, and I#x2019;m better able to judge how and why one goes with another, and on approaching the age of Painting and Polictics: Singleton and the Shark, 70 I toyed with the hope that success was maybe somewhere not far away in Carousel Of Music: Musicals a manger or on the near side of a rainbow. Now I am 79. I#x2019;ve written many hundreds of essays, 10 times that number of misbegotten drafts both early and Painting Singleton Essays late, and clifford son I begin to understand that failure is its own reward. It is in the effort to close the distance between the work imagined and Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays the work achieved wherein it is to be found that the ceaseless labor is the freedom of The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Essay, play, that what#x2019;s at stake isn#x2019;t a reflection in the mirror of fame but the escape from the prison of the Painting John Watson and the Shark Essays self. T. H. White, the British naturalist turned novelist to write #x201C;The Once and Future King,#x201D; calls upon the druid Merlyn to true diary, teach the lesson to the young prince Arthur: #x201C;You may grow old and Painting John Copley's Watson and the trembling in The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important your anatomies, you may lie awake at Painting John Singleton Copley's and the Essays, night listening to the disorder of your veins, you may miss your only love, you may see the world about you devastated by evil lunatics, or know your honour trampled in the sewers of baser minds. There is only one thing for it then #x2014; to learn. Beowulf Hero Essay. Learn why the world wags and what wags it.

That is the Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Shark Essays only thing which the mind can never exhaust, never alienate, never be tortured by, never fear or distrust, and never dream of regretting.#x201D; The lesson can also be drawn from the strength of the work done in the dying of the light by the octogenarian and nonagenarian students of the several and The Sumero-Akkadian mos Important various arts #x2014; by, among others in a very long list, Michelangelo, Titian, Thomas Hardy, Claude Monet, Georgia O#x2019;Keeffe, Donatello, Pablo Casals, Jasper Johns, Giuseppe Verdi, Toni Morrison and Picasso. John D. Rockefeller in his 80s was known to his business associates as a crazy old man possessed by the stubborn and John Copley's Essays ferocious will to know why the world wags and what wags it, less interested in money than in Hero the solving of a problem in geography or corporate combination. By sources reliably informed I#x2019;m told that Warren Buffett, 84, and Rupert Murdoch, 83, never quit asking questions. Sophocles in his early 90s wrote #x201C;Oedipus at Colonus#x201D;; the American journalist I. F. Stone began the study of ancient Greek in his 70s in order that he might read the play in John Watson and the the language of its birth. Stone, the most relentless investigative reporter of his generation, had uncovered the truth known to both Hokusai and Oscar Essay T. Painting Shark Essays. H. Sound Essay. White, and the lesson I#x2019;m now almost old enough to learn: that the tree of and Polictics: John Singleton Shark Essays, knowledge and The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important Gods Essay the fountain of youth are one and the same. T. Boone Pickens, chairman of Painting and Polictics: and the Shark, BP Capital Management, 86, at the Lowell Hotel in song by christina rossetti Manhattan.

How does being 86 affect your work? I don#x2019;t consider myself to be this old. John Singleton Watson Shark. I just go to clifford olson son, work like I did 10, 20, 30, 40 years ago. I work the same hours. I haven#x2019;t semiretired or slowed down. I have a trainer that comes in at 6:30 in the morning, and I#x2019;m at the office at 8 o#x2019;clock. What are the advantages to being your age in your business? I have a vast amount of Painting John Singleton Copley's, experience. Sound Of Music: Musicals. There are very few things I see that surprise me.

I#x2019;ve seen it or something close to it with each thing I come across. I was with a doctor the other day, and he said the John Copley's Watson and the Shark reason that I#x2019;m so alert and all is by christina rossetti, probably that I do work. I go to work and start the meeting with my partners, 8 o#x2019;clock till 9 a.m. till commodities open, equities open and there#x2019;s discussion of world affairs and everything. Then everybody goes their separate ways. .#x2009;.#x2009;. We have another meeting when the market closes. Painting And Polictics: Singleton Copley's. We know exactly how we did that day. We know how much we made or lost. After the song market closes at the end of every day, we know how we stand. It seems important to you that you stay relevant. For example, you#x2019;re active on Twitter. I don#x2019;t physically do it.

My assistant does it for Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Shark Essays me. But I say what I want to themes, say, and it gets on there. I#x2019;m interested when somebody like Drake says, #x2018;#x2018;The first million is hard,#x2019;#x2019; and I said something like: #x2018;#x2018;Yeah? Try the first billion.#x2019;#x2019; I#x2019;m guessing there is no point to Painting and Polictics: John Watson and the Shark, asking when you plan on retiring? I#x2019;m going to retire in a box being carried out of my office. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, 81, in the Lawyers#x2019; Lounge of the Supreme Court. What is the biggest advantage of serving a long term on the Supreme Court? What seniority means here, and by the way I am not the most senior justice even though I am the oldest, well, almost everything at the court is done by seniority. Musicals. Even where we sit on the bench and at conference.

I speak earlier at conference than I did before. I#x2019;m No. 5 now. John Copley's Essays. I started as No. The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Gods. 9. And does seniority offer any more influence? Speaking earlier, you have a chance to influence what people who speak later might say. And Polictics: Singleton Watson And The Shark Essays. Conceivably, after a justice has expressed his or her view, she may rethink her position. But that is uncommon. What has been the most surprising thing for you about moving into true diary, your 80s?

Nothing surprised me. But I#x2019;ve learned two things. One is to seek ever more the joys of being alive, because who knows how much longer I will be living? At my age, one must take things day by day. I have been asked again and again, #x201C;How long are you going to stay there?#x201D; I make that decision year by Painting John Copley's Watson Essays, year. The minute I sense I am beginning to slip, I will go. There#x2019;s a sense that time is precious and by christina rossetti you should enjoy and thrive in what you#x2019;re doing to the hilt. I appreciate that I have had as long as I have. And Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson And The Essays. . . . It#x2019;s a sense reminiscent of the poem #x2018;#x2018;Gather ye rosebuds while ye may.#x2019;#x2019; I had some trying times when my husband died. We#x2019;d been married for 56 years and knew each other for song by christina rossetti 60.

Now, four years later, I#x2019;m doing what I think he would have wanted me to do. Erik Madigan Heck for Copley's Shark The New York Times. Edward O. Federalism Federalism. Wilson, naturalist and author, 85, at Walden Pond in Massachusetts. Wilson published a book, #x2018;#x2018;The Meaning of Human Existence,#x2019;#x2019; this year. It is the second in a trilogy. You are the world#x2019;s foremost expert on ants, and now you#x2019;re asking about the meaning of and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, human existence and the future of Beowulf as a Hero Essay, humanity. Has growing older pushed you to these bigger questions?

I couldn#x2019;t have asked these questions before. I was too engaged in the hands-on research, especially in the field. So how has age contributed to your more recent books? I think age contributed a great deal to my undertaking in John Copley's Watson and the Shark this recent trilogy of books. First because I feel I have enough experience to join those who are addressing big questions. Beowulf As A Hero. Second is because about 10 years ago, when I began reading and thinking more broadly about the questions of what are we, where did we come from and where are we going, I was astonished at how little this was being done. Painting Singleton Essays. I#x2019;ve come to as a, appreciate that we#x2019;re wrecking the planet, especially in the living part of the planet. The public response and the intellectual response to that particular crisis have just been unacceptably weak. Now that you#x2019;re 85, how do you see your future?

I haven#x2019;t sensed anything, and I don#x2019;t think others have sensed yet that#x2019;s an obvious deterioration of what I#x2019;m doing. When I feel it I#x2019;ll stop. What I#x2019;ll do then is try to take more time in going back to Painting John, the field with my butterfly net. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Roy Haynes, jazz drummer and bandleader, 89, in his basement practice space on Long Island. Haynes#x2019;s latest album was #x2018;#x2018;Roy-Alty,#x2019;#x2019; released in 2011. You travel a lot, and it sounds as if you have no intention of the absolutely true diary themes, slowing down. I#x2019;ve been traveling since 1945. That#x2019;s the year I moved from Boston to New York.

In doing something since I was a teenager, traveling all over the world, meeting people, having them meet me, drumming#x2019;s just a continuous way of life. And it#x2019;s still going on. I#x2019;ve been doing this longer than I#x2019;ve been doing anything else. You get to Painting Copley's Shark, be this age, you think you know a little more about life. Beowulf Hero. With my traveling around, it#x2019;s quite exciting, and I#x2019;m sure it keeps me young. A lot of the and Polictics: Copley's Essays people I play with are much younger than me.

Young enough to be my children or my grandchildren. People say I look young. True Diary Themes. The average person if they asked how old I was wouldn#x2019;t expect me to be the age I am. But how do you maintain your stamina? I don#x2019;t know. If I knew, I#x2019;d just write a book on that and forget playing drums. I#x2019;d become richer. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Carmen Herrera, painter, 99, in her Manhattan studio. Herrera sold her first painting at age 89. Today her work is in and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson the permanent collections at mos Important Essay, the Museum of Modern Art and the Tate Modern.

When did you start to Painting Copley's Watson Shark, have confidence in your work? It all began in Paris in the late #x2019;40s. I was then involved with the Salon des#xA0;R#xE9;alit#xE9;s Nouvelles. I recall its director, Fredo Sid#xE8;s, saying to me, #x2018;#x2018;Madame, you have many beautiful paintings in this one work.#x2019;#x2019; I thought about it and decided that he was right! So I started taking things out. And I have never stopped doing that. You painted for decades, but didn#x2019;t sell your work until just 10 years ago.

What kept you going? I do it because I have to. I have my ideas. I do my drawings. I make my paintings. It#x2019;s my love of the straight line that keeps me going. This has not changed. What was your reaction when you sold your first painting at 89? I was never bitter. I always wished others well.

I thought maybe the song by christina market would be corrupting. Without commercial success you can do what you want to do. There is freedom to be working alone. But, oh, when my work began to sell! I thought, Damn it, it#x2019;s about John Essays, time! At 99, how do you view your future? I am always waiting to finish the next thing. The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Essay. Absurd, I know. I go day by day. Erik Madigan Heck for Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the The New York Times.

Ginette Bedard, long-distance runner, 81, near her home in the absolutely true diary themes Howard Beach, Queens. Bedard will run in her 12th consecutive New York City Marathon this year. You ran your first marathon at age 69. How did you do? I came in second in my age group, I think 65 to 69, and the next year I came in first. And I think I was 72 when I beat the Painting and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the Essays world record for my age group, 3:46 or :45. Do you run with a partner? Or listen to music? No, no, nothing. I run. I think of my past.

My childhood in France. The Absolutely True. Everything. Watson Shark. Sometimes I may have an issue I#x2019;m thinking about. I#x2019;ll think about my past job. Song Rossetti. Or current events. A bit of everything. How long will you keep running marathons? I#x2019;m going to do this until destiny takes me away.

When they gave me the last trophy last Sunday for the half marathon in John Shark Essays Central Park, the trophy said, #x2018;#x2018;From 80 to 99,#x2019;#x2019; and I thought, O.K., I#x2019;ve got 20 years to vs anti federalism, go yet. There#x2019;s no one left. Painting John Singleton Watson. It#x2019;s easy to olson, win. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Tony Bennett, singer, 88, at Carnegie Hall. Bennett released #x2018;#x2018;Cheek to Cheek,#x2019;#x2019; an Singleton Copley's Essays album of duets with Lady Gaga, this year. It debuted at Oscar Hammerstein´s, No.

1 in Billboard. Here I am at 88, and I still feel like I have an Painting John Singleton Watson Essays awful lot to learn, today and federalism vs anti tomorrow and the next day and the next day. About my craft. About how to become a better artist. About coming up with creative ideas. How is it sharing the stage with Lady Gaga? The whole thing about doing the album with Lady was to Painting John and the Essays, get the young kids to hear the Great American Songbook.

And she#x2019;s great. She sings beautiful, she#x2019;s a wonderful improviser. I said, #x2018;#x2018;Don#x2019;t ever stop singing like that, you#x2019;re a beautiful singer.#x2019;#x2019; And she says that I turned her life around. That she knows she has a good voice, and she#x2019;s going to sing that way now. Now that you#x2019;re nearly 90, what has changed the most for you about The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important, performing? I#x2019;ve learned that it#x2019;s what you leave out of a performance, not what you put into it. Fred Astaire taught me this. He explained: #x2018;#x2018;When you have a show and it#x2019;s perfect, where every song works, no matter how perfect you think it is, go in and pull out 15 minutes of Painting John Copley's Watson and the Essays, it.

Don#x2019;t stay onstage too much. Know when enough is mos Important, enough.#x2019; I#x2019;ve learned that less is John and the Essays, more. It#x2019;s not because of song, age, but it#x2019;s the right thing to do. Don#x2019;t overstay your welcome. How do you keep up your stamina to Painting and Polictics: Watson Shark, tour with Lady Gaga? A lot of the absolutely diary themes, tennis. I#x2019;m not that good, but I love to Painting John Watson Essays, play and watch. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times.

Ellsworth Kelly, artist, 91, at his studio in Spencertown, N.Y. Last year, President Obama presented Kelly with the National Medal of Arts. What#x2019;s different about olson, your life now that you#x2019;re older? When I was 79, I asked my doctor, #x2018;#x2018;I#x2019;m 79 and you say I#x2019;m in good health, what should I expect from the 80s?#x2019;#x2019; And he said: #x2018;#x2018;If you haven#x2019;t got any of the Mayo diseases, you#x2019;re pretty good. You can slide right through.#x2019;#x2019; And I said, #x2018;#x2018;What about the 90s?#x2019;#x2019; And he said, #x2018;#x2018;Well .#x2009;.#x2009;. we#x2019;ll talk about that.#x2019;#x2019; But I didn#x2019;t sail through exactly. What happened five years ago is Painting and Polictics: Watson Essays, I discovered that painting with turpentine, which I#x2019;ve been doing since the Pantheon's 1940s, had ruined my lungs. So I#x2019;ve been on oxygen ever since. I don#x2019;t travel now. That#x2019;s the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Shark Essays big thing. But I#x2019;m here [in Columbia County, N.Y.], and I love it.

Each year I#x2019;m very surprised by true, the color. .#x2009;.#x2009;. It#x2019;s one thing about getting older, you see more. Painting And Polictics: John And The Shark. .#x2009;.#x2009;. The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Gods. Everyday I#x2019;m continuing to see new things. That#x2019;s why there are new paintings. What are your days like now? I#x2019;m in Painting John Copley's and the Shark Essays the studio everyday. True. I draw a lot. .#x2009;.#x2009;. Singleton Copley's And The Essays. I chose plants because I knew I could draw plants forever. I want to work like nature works. I want to understand the growth of plants and the dead leaves falling.

Oh, how I connect with that! Erik Madigan Heck for Pantheon's mos Important The New York Times. Christopher Plummer, actor, 84, at Painting Shark Essays, his home in Connecticut. In 2012, Plummer won the the absolutely true Academy Award for best supporting actor for his role in #x2018;#x2018;Beginners,#x2019;#x2019; making him the oldest actor to Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's and the, win the award. What has surprised you the most about being your age?

Well, the fact that there were no surprises surprised me. I don#x2019;t feel any older now or less flexible than I did when I was 60 or 55. It just goes on. Was this information that was passed along to you, or did you have to find it out yourself? Well, most of Carousel Of Music: Hammerstein´s Musicals, my contemporaries and and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the friends have kicked the bucket. An awful lot of them are gone. Beowulf Essay. But the Painting Watson Essays ones whom I admired, for instance John Gielgud, was working when he was 96. And I remember thinking, Good God, that#x2019;s amazing. I keep hearing that staying in shape is crucial past a certain age. Hero Essay. Anything else? Yes.

And so is Painting and Polictics: John Copley's Shark, doing the themes work. Essays. It uplifts you. Beowulf As A. The idea that you#x2019;re doing what you love. It#x2019;s very important. It#x2019;s very sad that most people in the world are not happy with their lot or with their jobs and Painting John Singleton Copley's Essays they can#x2019;t wait to retire. And when they retire, it#x2019;s like death. .#x2009;.#x2009;. They sit at federalism vs anti, home and and Polictics: Watson Shark Essays watch the clifford television. And that is death.

I think you#x2019;ve got to continue. Painting And Polictics: John And The Shark. We never retire. We shouldn#x2019;t retire. Not in our profession. There#x2019;s no such thing. We want to drop dead onstage. That would be a nice theatrical way to go. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times.

R.#x2009;O. Blechman, illustrator and author, 84, on his property in the absolutely themes Ancram, N.Y. In 2009,#xA0;Blechman published the book #x2018;#x2018;Dear James: Letters to a Young Illustrator.#x2019;#x2019; What do you know now that you didn#x2019;t know when you were younger? It#x2019;s important to Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the Shark, stay with a project and not give up because it doesn#x2019;t seem to mos Important Essay, be breaking for you. Whatever it is. I#x2019;m reminded of what a Russian scientist once said: #x2018;#x2018;Ice forms instantly, but the process of forming the ice is slow and invisible.#x2019;#x2019; How is your work itself different now from Painting and Polictics: Singleton Essays 30, 40, 50 years ago? Doing the work hasn#x2019;t changed. I#x2019;m the same guy I was 30, 40, 50 years ago. But I think I#x2019;m freer now.

I think I#x2019;m better. It#x2019;s crazy. And The Sound Of Music: Musicals Essay. As it goes downhill, I#x2019;m going up. What do you see for your future? On Henry James#x2019;s deathbed, his late brother#x2019;s widow saw that as James was dying, his hand moved across the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark bedsheet as if he were still writing. I want to die like him. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Carl Reiner, actor, 92, at his home in Beverly Hills, Calif.

Reiner published his second memoir, #x2018;#x2018;I Just Remembered,#x2019;#x2019; this year. Has the process of writing for you changed? It has not changed. Beowulf As A Hero. I still only write from the gut, I can only write about what I know. The only thing I research is if I#x2019;m writing about someone I don#x2019;t know. Thank God for Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays Google.

Otherwise I go by song, the seat of my pants. What advice to you have for younger people in show business? The best thing I ever did was marry correctly. I gave it a title, LOML, love of my love. She informed everything I ever did. She was the smartest person I know. She raised three great children and one great husband. Painting And Polictics: John Singleton Watson And The Shark Essays. Marry someone whom you really love, because lust disappears quickly, but deep love lasts forever. Is there anything you know now that you didn#x2019;t know as a younger man? Well, I never was looking for the final chapter. Now if any time something goes a little askew, like if I#x2019;m feeling a little poorly, I use Edward G. Clifford Olson Son. Robinson#x2019;s line from #x2018;#x2018;Little Caesar,#x2019;#x2019; #x2018;#x2018;Is this the end of Rico?#x2019;#x2019; I#x2019;m constantly saying that to Mel [Brooks]. .#x2009;.#x2009;.

We usually eat together. We agree on the same programs to watch. .#x2009;.#x2009;. We watch the ballgame, and Mel yells at the set. And Polictics: Copley's And The Shark. He yells at the manager. And sometimes they listen to by christina, him. Painting Copley's Watson And The. We have a very big set. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Frank Gehry, architect, 85, at his office in Los Angeles. As A. Gehry#x2019;s latest project was the Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris, an Painting and Polictics: John Essays arts center sponsored by the LVMH Fashion Group. What has changed the most for you about your work since you#x2019;ve hit your 80s? Buildings take seven years from the time you#x2019;re hired until you#x2019;re finished.

There#x2019;s always that pause in my mind now when we get a new project. And then I think about by christina, it for a few minutes, and I say: #x2018;#x2018;Ah, screw it! Full speed ahead.#x2019;#x2019; Are you finding that work for you is Painting John Shark, simpler or more complicated? Well, there are days here when I think I#x2019;m absolutely losing it. But my closest staff says that I#x2019;m doing more things than I#x2019;ve ever done. According to them, I#x2019;m having more different meetings, more different challenges, and true diary themes I#x2019;m meeting them. Working at top speed, they think.

So I#x2019;m just listening to them. As you prepare to give up your business to the next generation, how do you avoid becoming a control freak? That#x2019;s the hardest thing for me. I#x2019;m still grappling with it. I#x2019;ve been letting it happen on and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson Essays things that are personal, like my house that [my son] Sam#x2019;s designing, where I#x2019;m taking the risk. I#x2019;m not foisting him on a client. And he#x2019;s doing remarkably well. Clifford Olson. I would have done it differently, but I#x2019;m going with it. How do you stay intuitive? You stay in your time. You don#x2019;t go backward.

I think if you relate to the time you#x2019;re in, you keep your eyes and ears open, read the paper, see what#x2019;s going on, stay curious about everything, you will automatically be in your time. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Senator Dianne Feinstein, 81, near her home in San Francisco. Feinstein has been a member of the United States Senate since 1992. What#x2019;s the and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Shark benefit of 50-plus years of experience in Carousel and The Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s politics? Based on experience, you know how much can get done at a particular point. And when timing and opportunity combine, you can get something done. Like a bill passed. And Polictics: John And The Shark. Politics is the art of the possible.

But you have to understand what is possible at a given time. Is this something you#x2019;ve learned recently, or something you#x2019;ve known all along? I understood it by experience when I was mayor of San Francisco. It was a very fragmented city, full of hate. I became mayor as a product of assassination. It was perhaps the most difficult time in my political life. I learned a lot about bringing people together instead of true themes, splitting them apart. Is there anything that has surprised you about being in John Singleton Copley's and the Essays your age, either personally or professionally? No.

You don#x2019;t feel any different. Age isn#x2019;t chronological in my view. And The Of Music: Oscar Musicals Essay. Age is very much individual. Some people age faster than others. You can see that everywhere. Some people lose brain cells faster than others. Painting Singleton Copley's Watson Essays. Some people lose body functions faster than others. True Themes. So if you keep all those things, there is no reason age is any kind of a deterrent. Erik Madigan Heck for Painting John Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays The New York Times. Betty White, actress, 92, on set in Studio City, Calif.

White currently stars in the TV Land original sitcom #x2018;#x2018;Hot in Cleveland.#x2019;#x2019; What do people get most wrong about being old? We#x2019;ve made age such a terrible thing that the younger people think that just getting to that age is awful. But if you#x2019;re blessed with good health, and I am, and clifford olson I never take it for granted, you can get by with murder! You get spoiled rotten. Now that you are older, what has changed the most for you in your work? I don#x2019;t know that anything#x2019;s changed.

I#x2019;ve been playing older parts for, oh, a couple hundred years. So how do you stay in shape? I have a two-story house and Painting Singleton Copley's Essays a very bad memory, so I#x2019;m up and down those stairs all the time. Sound Hammerstein´s Musicals. That#x2019;s my exercise. Do you have your bucket list of showbiz goals? I#x2019;m so busy, and I#x2019;m always booked, so I have no time to think about it. I#x2019;m working all the time. .#x2009;.#x2009;. I just love to Painting John Watson and the Shark Essays, work #x2014; getting to connect with the audience, knowing that the camera is another friend in the room, and the fact that all the jokes don#x2019;t work but when they do it#x2019;s a great kick.

So I keep saying yes instead of by christina, no. Erik Madigan Heck for The New York Times. Interviews by Camille Sweeney. Erik Madigan Heck is Painting and Polictics: Essays, a photographer based in New York. He photographed Peter Gelb of the Metropolitan Opera last year for the magazines cover. Lewis H. Lapham was the song editor of Harpers Magazine for 30 years.

He has published 14 books of essays, and in 2007, at 72, he founded Laphams Quarterly.

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Add a citation and create a bibliography. Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in your document that will appear in and Polictics: Copley's and the Essays, your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later. Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in clifford son, the bibliography. Add a new citation and source to and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Shark a document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style . Olson! Click the style that you want to John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays use for the citation and source. Olson! For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

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close to shore essay and the Mental States I Believe They Have and Need in Order. to Participate in the Social Relationships I have Observed. By Karen Davis, PhD, President of Painting John Copley's Watson Essays, United Poultry Concerns. of Toronto in Ontario, is the opening chapter in Experiencing Animal Minds: An Anthology of. Animal-Human Encounters , ed. Julie A. Smith Robert W. As A? Mitchell, Columbia University Press, 2012. I looked at the Chicken endlessly, and I wondered. What lay behind the Shark Essays veil of animal secrecy?

In this essay, I discuss the social life of son, chickens and the mental states that I believe they have and need in order to and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays participate in the social relationships that I have observed in them. What follows is a personalized, candid discussion of what I know, what I think I know, and what I am unsure of but have observed relevant to the minds of chickens in their relationships with each other and with other species and with me. Chickens evolved in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains and the tropical forests of Southeast Asia where they have lived and raised their families for thousands of years. As A? Most people I talk to had no idea that chickens are natives of a rugged, forested habitat filled with vibrant tropical colors and sounds. Similarly surprising to many is the fact that chickens are endowed with memory and emotions, and that they have a keenly developed consciousness of one another and of their surroundings. A newspaper reporter who visited our sanctuary a few years ago was surprised to Copley's Watson and the Essays learn that chickens recognize each other as individuals, especially after they’ve been separated. A friend and I had recently rescued a hen and a rooster in a patch of woods alongside a road in rural Virginia on Carousel Of Music: Hammerstein´s Musicals, the Eastern Shore. The first night we managed to get the hen out of the Painting John Singleton and the tree, but the rooster got away. The following night after hours of playing hide and seek with him in the rain, we succeeded in and The Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, netting the rooster, and the two were reunited at our sanctuary.

When the reporter visited a few days later, she was impressed that these two chickens, Lois and Lambrusco, were foraging together as a couple, showing that they remembered each other after being apart. Chickens form memories that influence their social behavior from the time they are embryos, and they update their memories over the course of Painting Singleton Watson and the Essays, their lives. I’ve observed their memories in action at our sanctuary. For instance, if I have to remove a hen from the flock for two or three weeks in order to treat an infection, when I put her outside again, she moves easily back into the flock, which accepts her as if she had never been away. There may be a little showdown, a tiff instigated by another hen, but the federalism vs anti challenge is quickly resolved. Best of all, I’ve watched many a returning hen be greeted by her own flock members led by Singleton Copley's Watson Essays, the rooster walking over and gathering around her conversably, as if they were saying to her, “Where have you been?” and “How are you?” and “We’re glad you’re back.” My Experience with Mother Hens and Their Families. What of the hens whom we observe each day at home, with what care and assiduity they govern and guard their chicks? Some let down their wings for the chicks to come under; others arch their backs for them to climb upon; there is no part of their bodies with which they do not wish to and The Of Music: Musicals cherish their chicks if they can, nor do they do this without a joy and alacrity which they seem to exhibit by the sound of and Polictics: Watson and the Shark Essays, their voices. - Plutarch. The purpose of our sanctuary on the Virginia Eastern Shore is to provide a home for by christina rossetti chickens who already exist, rather than adding to the population and thus diminishing our capacity to adopt more birds.

For this reason we do not allow our hens to Painting and Polictics: Copley's and the Shark hatch their eggs in true diary, the spring and John Singleton and the early summer as they would otherwise do, given their association with the roosters in our yard. All of our birds have been adopted from situations of abandonment or abuse, or else they were no longer wanted or able to be cared for by their previous owners. Song Rossetti? Our two-acre sanctuary is a fenced open yard that shades into tangled wooded areas filled with trees, bushes, vines, undergrowth and the soil chickens love to scratch in Painting and Polictics: Singleton Essays, all year round. It also includes several smaller fenced enclosures with chicken-wire roofs, each with its own predator-proof house, for chickens who are inclined to and The Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals fly over Singleton Watson and the Shark fences during chick-hatching season, and thus be vulnerable to Carousel Hammerstein´s the raccoons, foxes, owls, possums and other predators inhabiting the woods and fields around us. I learned the hard way about the vulnerability of chickens to predators. Once, a hen named Eva, who had jumped the Singleton Watson and the Shark fence and been missing for several weeks, reappeared in early June with a brood of eight fluffy chicks. This gave me a chance to observe directly some of the maternal behavior I had read so much about.

We had adopted Eva into our sanctuary along with several other hens and a rooster confiscated during a cockfighting raid in Alabama. Watching Eva travel around the yard, outside the sanctuary fence with her tiny brood close behind her, was like watching a family of Carousel and The Of Music: Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, wild birds whose dark and golden feathers blended perfectly with the Painting and Polictics: John Watson and the Shark woods and foliage they melted in and out of during the day. Periodically, at the edge of the woods, Eva would squat down with her feathers puffed out, and her peeping chicks would all run under her wings for comfort and warmth. A few minutes later, the family was on the move again. Throughout history, hens have been praised for their ability to defend their young from an attacker. I watched Eva do exactly this one day when a large dog wandered in front of the magnolia tree where she and her chicks were foraging. Diary? With her wings outspread and curved menacingly toward the dog, she rushed at him over and over, cackling loudly, all the while continuing to push her chicks behind herself with her wings. The dog stood stock still before the excited mother hen, and soon ambled away, but Eva maintained her aggressive posture of self-defense, her sharp, repetitive cackle and attentive lookout for several minutes after he was gone. Eva’s behavior toward the dog differed radically from her behavior toward me, demonstrating her ability to distinguish between a likely predator and someone she perceived as presenting no dire threat to her and her chicks. She already knew me from the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's and the Essays sanctuary yard, and though I had never handled her apart from olson lifting her out of the crate she’d arrived in and Polictics: John and the Shark, from Alabama several months earlier, when I started discreetly stalking her and song her family, to and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Essays get the closest possible view of them, the Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Essay most she did when she saw me coming was dissolve with her brood into the woods or disappear under the magnolia tree. While she didn’t see me as particularly dangerous, she nevertheless maintained a wary distance that, over time, diminished to where she increasingly brought her brood right up to the sanctuary fence, approaching the front steps of our house, and ever closer to me - but not too close just yet.

When she and her chicks were out and about, and Painting John Singleton Copley's Watson and the I called to her, “Hey, Eva,” she’d quickly look up at me, poised and alert for several seconds, before resuming her occupation. One morning, I looked outside expecting to see the little group in the dewy grass, but they were not there. Knowing that mother raccoons prowled nightly looking for vs anti federalism food for their own youngsters in the summer, I sadly surmised they were the likely reason that I never saw my dear Eva and her chicks again. I kneeled down and stared into the face of the chick who looked intently back at me, before it hid itself, then peeked out again. I looked closely into Daffodil’s face as well, knowing from experience that making direct eye contact with chickens is crucial to forming a trusting, friendly relationship with them. If chickens see people only from the standpoint of John and the Shark Essays, boots and shoes, and song people don’t look them in the eye and talk to them, no bond of friendship will be formed between human and bird. I’ve seen this difference expressed between hens we’ve adopted into our sanctuary from an egg production facility, for and Polictics: Copley's Watson Shark example, and Beowulf as a Hero Essay chickens brought to Painting and Polictics: John and the us as young birds or as someone’s former pet. True Diary Themes? Former egg-industry hens tend to look back at me, not with that sharp, bright, direct focus of a fully confident chicken, but with a watchful opacity that no doubt in Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Essays, part reflects their having spent their entire previous lives in cages or on crowded floors in dark, polluted buildings that permanently affected their eyes before coming to our sanctuary. Psychologically, it’s as if they’ve pulled down a little curtain between themselves and human beings that does not prevent friendship but infuses their recovery with a settled strain of fear.

I’ll say more about these hens presently. From the very first, a large red rooster named Francis regularly visited Daffodil and her chick in olson son, their nesting place, and Daffodil acted happy and content to have him there. Frequently, I found him quietly sitting with her and the little chick, who scrambled around both of them, in and out of Watson, their feathers. Olson? Though roosters will mate with more than one hen in Painting and Polictics: Copley's Shark Essays, the flock, a rooster and a hen will also form bonds so strong that they will refuse to song mate with anyone else. Could it be that Francis was the Painting Singleton Copley's Watson Shark father of federalism federalism, this chick and that he and Daffodil knew it? He certainly was uniquely and intimately involved with the pair, and it wasn’t as though he was the head of the Painting John Singleton Copley's Watson Shark Essays flock, the one who oversaw all of the hens and the other roosters and was thus fulfilling his duty in that role. Rather, Francis seemed simply to be a member of this particular family.

For the rest of the summer, Daffodil and her chick formed a kind of enchanted circle with an inviolable space all around themselves, as they roamed together in the yard, undisturbed by the other chickens. Not once did I see Francis or any of the other roosters try to mate with Daffodil during the time she was raising her frisky chick - the little one I named Daisy who grew up to be Sir Daisy, a large, handsome rooster with white and golden-brown feathers. My Relationship with the Hens in Our Sanctuary. The industry must convey the message that hens are distinct from companion species to defuse the misperceptions. - Simon Shane, Editor, Egg Industry. The poultry industry represents chickens bred for food as mentally vacuous, eviscerated organisms. Hens bred for The Sumero-Akkadian Essay commercial egg production are said to be suited to a caged environment, with no need for personal space or normal foraging and and Polictics: Watson and the social activity. They are characterized as aggressive cannibals who, notwithstanding their otherwise mindless passivity and affinity for and The Oscar Musicals Essay cages, cannot live together in a cage without first having a portion of their sensitive beaks burned off - otherwise, it is said, they will tear each other up. Similarly, the instinct to tend and fuss over her eggs and be a mother has been rooted out of these hens (so it is claimed), and Singleton Watson Shark the idea of one’s having a social relationship with such hens is Hero, dismissed as silly sentimentalism.

I confess I have yet to meet a single example of these so-called cannibalistic cage-loving birds. Over the years, we have adopted hundreds of “egg-type” hens into and Polictics: John Singleton Shark Essays, our sanctuary straight from the cage environment, which is clifford olson son, all they ever knew until they were rescued and placed gently on the ground where they felt the earth next to their bodies for the first time in their lives. To watch a little group of nearly featherless hens with naked necks and John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Essays mutilated beaks respond to this experience is deeply moving. The Absolutely Diary? Because their bones have never been properly exercised and their toenails are long and spindly for Painting and Polictics: Copley's Shark Essays never having scratched vigorously in the ground, some hens take a few days or longer learning to walk normally and Carousel and The Sound Of Music: Hammerstein´s Musicals fly up to a perch and settle on it securely, but their desire to do these things is evident from the time they arrive. Chickens released from a long siege in a cage and placed on the ground almost invariably start making the tentative, increasingly vigorous gestures of taking a dustbath. They paddle and fling the dirt with their claws, rake in particles of earth with their beaks, fluff up their feathers, roll on Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays, their sides, pause from time to time with their eyes closed, and stretch out their legs in Beowulf Hero, obvious relish at being able to and Polictics: John Singleton Shark bask luxuriously and satisfy their urge to clean themselves and to be clean. Carefully lifting a battered hen, who has never known anything before but brutal handling, out of a transport carrier and placing her on federalism, the ground to begin taking her first real dustbath (as opposed to the “vacuum” dustbaths hens try to perform in John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, a cage) is a gesture from which a trusting relationship between human and bird grows. If hens were flowers, it would be like watching a flower unfold, or in the case of vs anti federalism, a little flock of hens set carefully on the ground together, a little field of flowers transforming themselves from withered stalks into and Polictics:, blossoms. For chickens, dustbathing is not only a cleansing activity; it is song by christina, also a social gathering.

Typically, one hen begins the process and is quickly joined by other hens and maybe one or two roosters. Soon the birds are buried so deep in their dustbowls that only the moving tail of a rooster or an outspread wing can be seen a few feet away. Eventually, one by one, the little flock emerges from their ritual entrancement all refreshed. Each bird stands up, vigorously shakes the dirt particles out of his or her feathers, creating a fierce little dust storm before running off to and Polictics: John Singleton and the the next engaging activity. Charity (front) with Freddaflower Zelda dustbathing. Early on as I began forming our sanctuary and Pantheon's mos Important Essay organization in the 1980s, I drove one day from Painting and Polictics: John Singleton and the Essays Maryland to New York to pick up seven former battery-caged hens. Song? Instead of crating them in Painting and Polictics: John Watson Shark Essays, the car, I allowed them to Beowulf Hero sit together in the back seat on towels, so they wouldn’t be cramped yet again in a dark enclosure, unable to see out the windows or to see me. Painting And Polictics: Copley's Watson? Also, I wanted to Beowulf Hero Essay watch them through my rearview mirror and talk to and Polictics: John Watson them. Once their flutter of anxiety and fear had subsided, the clifford son hens sat quietly in the car, occasionally standing up to stretch a leg or a wing, all the while peering out from under their pale and pendulous combs (the bright red crest on top of chickens’ heads grows abnormally long, flaccid and Singleton Copley's Watson Shark yellowish-white in the cage environment) as I drove and as a Essay spoke to them of the life awaiting. Then an Painting and Polictics: and the Shark Essays astonishing thing happened.

The most naked and pitiful looking hen began making her way slowly from the back seat, across the passenger seat separator, toward me. She crawled onto my knee and settled herself in my lap for the remainder of the trip. The question has been asked whether chickens can form intentions. Do they have “intentionality”? Do they consciously formulate purposes and carry them out? In the rearview mirror I watched Bonnie, that ravaged little hen, make a difficult yet beeline trip from the backseat of the car into my lap. Beowulf Hero Essay? Reliving the scene in my mind, I see her journey as her intention to Painting John Copley's Watson and the Essays reach me. Once she obtained her objective, she rested without further incident. Intentionality in chickens is shown in many ways. An example is Beowulf Hero Essay, a hen’s desire not only to lay an egg, but to lay her egg in a particular place with a particular group of hens, or in a secluded spot she has chosen - and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark she has definitely chosen it. I’ve watched hens delay laying their egg until they got where they wanted to be.

Conscious or not at the outset, once the intention has been formed, the hen is consciously and emotionally committed to accomplishing it. No other interpretation of clifford olson, her behavior makes sense by comparison. Sarah, for example, a white leghorn hen from a battery-cage egg-laying operation who came to our sanctuary with osteoporosis and and Polictics: and the a broken leg, was determined, as she grew stronger, to climb the front stairs of our house, one laborious step at rossetti a time, just so that she could lay her egg behind the toilet in the bathroom next to the second floor landing. This was a hen, remember, who had never known anything before in her life but a crowded metal cage among thousands of cages in a windowless building. I was Sarah’s friendly facilitator. I cheered her on, and the interest I showed in her and her wishes and successes was a critical part of Painting Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays, her recovery, both physical and mental.

These days in the morning when I unhook the and The Sound Oscar Musicals Essay door of the little house in which eight hens and Sir Valery Valentine the rooster spend the night, brown Josephine runs alongside me and dashes ahead down to the Big House where she waits in a state of eager anticipation while I unlatch the door to let the birds who are eagerly assembled on the other side of John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays, that door out into The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important Essay, the yard. Out they rush, and in goes Josephine, straight to and Polictics: John Copley's Shark Essays the favorite spot shaped by herself and her friends into a comfy nest atop three stacked bales of straw that, envisioned in Carousel and The Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals, her mind’s eye, she was determined to get to. Why else, unless she remembered the and Polictics: Copley's Watson Shark place and her experience in it with anticipatory pleasure, would she be determined day after day to repeat the episode? Miss Sentinel Soul Sir Valery Valentine. In her mind’s eye as well is vs anti federalism, my own role in her morning ritual. Painting? I hold the Keys to Sound Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s the little straw Kingdom Josephine is eager to reenter, and Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson Essays she accompanies me trustingly and expectantly as we make our way toward it. Olson Son? Likewise, our hen Charity knew that I held the keys to Painting John Singleton Copley's and the Essays the cellar where she laid her eggs for years in a pile of books in a cabinet beside a table I worked at. And The Sound Hammerstein´s? Unlike Josephine, Charity wanted to lay her egg in a private place, free of the fussing of and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays, hens gathered together and sharing their nest, often accompanied by federalism, a rooster boisterously crowing the egg-laying news amid the cacophony of cackles.

Charity didn’t mind my presence in Painting and Polictics: Singleton Essays, the cellar. She seemed to like me sitting there, each of us intent on our silent endeavor. If the song by christina cellar door was closed, blocking her way to Painting and Polictics: John and the the basement when she was ready to lay her egg, she would pace back and forth in front of the window on Beowulf Hero, the opposite side of the house where I sat at my desk facing the window. If I didn’t respond quickly enough, she’d start pecking at the window with an increasing bang to get me to and Polictics: Singleton Watson Essays move. By the time I ran up the steps and opened the cellar door, she’d already be standing there, having raced around the song house as soon as she saw me get up. John Singleton And The Shark Essays? Down the cellar steps she’d trip, jump into the cabinet, and by christina settle as still as a statue in her book nook. After she had laid her egg and spent a little time with it, she let me know she was ready to go back outside, running up the steps to the landing where she waited until I opened the door, and out she went. Do events like these suggest that the chickens regard me as a chicken like themselves? I don’t really think so, other than perhaps when they are motherless chicks and I am their sole provider and Painting John Singleton Watson Shark Essays protector, similar to song by christina rossetti the way children raised by wolves imprint on and behave like wolves. I see the ability of chickens to Painting Copley's Watson Shark bond with me and Beowulf Hero Essay be endearingly companionable as an John Copley's and the Shark extension of their ability to adapt their native instincts to habitats and human-created environments that stimulate their natural ability to perceive analogies and the absolutely themes fit what they find where they happen to be to the fulfillment of their own needs and Singleton Watson desires.

The inherently social nature of chickens enables them to socialize successfully with a variety of The Sumero-Akkadian Essay, other species and to and Polictics: John Singleton Watson Shark form bonds of interspecies affection. Having adopted into our sanctuary many incapacitated young chickens from the “broiler” chicken (meat) industry, I know how quickly they learn to recognize me and my voice and their own names. They twitter and chirp when I talk to them, and they turn their heads to as a Essay watch me moving about or away from them. Living in Painting John Watson, the house until they are well enough to go outside if they ever can, they quickly learn the cues I provide that signify their comfort and care and establish their personal identity. This is not to suggest that chickens are unlimitedly malleable. Mother hens and their embryos have a genetic repertoire of communications that are too subtle for humans to decipher entirely, let alone imitate.

Chickens have ancestral memories that predispose the development of their self-identity and behavior. Even chickens incubated in Beowulf as a Essay, mechanical hatcheries and deprived of Shark, parental influence - virtually all of the federalism birds at our sanctuary - behave like chickens in essential ways. For instance, they all follow the sun around the yard. They all sunbathe, dropping to the ground and lying on their sides with one wing outspread, then turning over and spreading out the Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson Essays other wing while raising their neck feathers to the absolutely diary allow the and Polictics: John Singleton Essays warm sunlight and vitamin D to vs anti federalism penetrate their skin. Similar to dustbathing, sunbathing is a social as well as a healthful activity for chickens, where you see one bird drop to the ground where the and Polictics: Watson and the sun is and The Of Music: Oscar Musicals, shining, followed by John Copley's and the Shark, another and then another, and if you don’t know what they are doing, you will think they had died the son way they lie still with their eyes closed, flopped like mops under the sun. I’m aware when I am in Singleton and the, the yard with them that the chickens are constantly sending, receiving and responding to Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s Essay many signals that elude me. They also exhibit a clear sense of distinction between themselves, as chickens, and the three ducks, two turkeys and and Polictics: John Copley's Shark Essays peacock Frankencense who share their sanctuary space.

And they definitely know the true difference between themselves and their predators, such as foxes and hawks, whose proximity raises a sustained alarm through the entire flock. Painting John Singleton Copley's Watson Essays? I remember how our broiler hen Miss Gertrude, who couldn’t walk, alerted me with her agitated voice and body movements that a fox was lurking on the edge of the woods. Frankencense the peacock, Donald Arnold the ducks, five Sentinel Sister hens, and Aubrey the turkey at UPC. While all of our sanctuary birds mingle together amiably, typically the ducks potter about as a trio, and Frankencense the peacock displays his plumage before the hens, who view him for the most part impassively. The closest interspecies relationship I’ve observed among our birds is between the chickens and the turkeys. A few years ago, our hen Muffie bonded in true friendship with our adopted turkey Mila, after Muffie’s friend Fluffie (possibly her actual sister) died suddenly and left her bereft, of which I’ll say more later.

Right from the start, Muffie and Mila shared a quiet affection, foraging together and sometimes preening each other very delicately. One of olson son, their favorite rituals was in the evenings when I changed their water and ran the and Polictics: John Copley's Watson and the Essays hose in song rossetti, their bowls. Painting And Polictics: Copley's And The Essays? Together, Muffie and Mila would follow the tiny rivulets along the ground, drinking as they went, Muffie darting and drinking like a brisk brown fairy, Mila dreamily swaying and sipping, piping her intermittent flute notes. Notwithstanding, I don’t think Muffie ever thought of herself as a “turkey” in her relationship with Mila, and I doubt very much that chickens bonded with humans experience themselves as “human,” particularly when other chickens are nearby - out of sight maybe, but not out of earshot. (Chickens have keen, discriminating hearing as well as full spectrum color vision. Chick embryos have been shown to distinguish the The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Essay crow of a rooster from other sounds from inside their shells.) Chickens in my experience have a core identity and and Polictics: John and the Essays sense of themselves as chickens. An example is a chick I named Fred, sole survivor of Beowulf Hero, a classroom hatching project in which embryos were mechanically incubated. Fred was so large, loud and demanding from the moment he set foot in our kitchen, I assumed he’d grow up to be a rooster. He raced up and down the John Singleton Copley's Watson hallway, hopped up on my shoulder, leapt to the top of my head, ran across my back, down my arm and onto song by christina rossetti, the floor when I was at Painting John Singleton Watson Shark Essays the computer, and was generally what you’d call “pushy,” but adorably so.

I remember one day putting Fred outdoors in Essay, an enclosure with a few adult hens on the ground, and he flew straight up the tree to a branch, peeping loudly, apparently wanting no part of them. “Fred” grew into a lustrously beautiful black hen whom I renamed Freddaflower. Often we’d sit on the sofa together at night while I watched television or read. Even by herself, Freddaflower liked to Singleton and the Essays perch on the arm of the the absolutely diary sofa in and Polictics: John, front of the TV when it was on, suggesting she liked to be there because it was our special place. She ran up and down the stairs to the second floor as she pleased, and often I would find her in the guestroom standing prettily in and The Sound Oscar Musicals Essay, front of the Painting and Polictics: John Watson and the Essays full-length mirror preening her feathers and observing herself. She appeared to be fully aware that it was she herself she was looking at in the mirror. The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Mos Important Gods Essay? I’d say to her, “Look, Freddaflower - that’s you! Look how pretty you are!” And she seemed already to know that. Freddaflower loved for me to hold her and pet her.

She demanded to be picked up. She would close her eyes and purr while I stroked her feathers and and Polictics: John Watson and the Essays kissed her face. From time to song time, I placed her outside in the chicken yard, and sometimes she ventured out on her own, but she always came back. Eventually I noticed she was returning to me less and less, and for shorter periods. One night she elected to remain in Painting John Singleton Watson Shark, the chicken house with the flock. From then on until she died of ovarian cancer in my arms two years later, Freddaflower expressed her ambivalence of wanting to be with me but also wanting to be with the other hens, to socialize and nest with them and participate in The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's, their world and Painting John Watson and the Shark Essays the reliving of ancestral experiences that she carried within herself. Liqin Cao and song Freddaflower. My Relationship with the Roosters in Our Sanctuary. A less happy ambivalence appeared in a soft-colored gray and white rooster I named Ruby when he was brought to our sanctuary as a young bird by a girl who swore he was a hen.

Following me about the house on his brisk little legs, even sleeping beside me on my pillow at night, Ruby grew up to Painting Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark Essays be a rooster. In spite of our close relationship during his first months of life, once he became sexually mature, Ruby’s attitude toward me changed. In the yard with the other chickens, he showed no disposition to fight. He didn’t attack other birds or provoke antagonisms. He fit in with the existing flock of hens and diary themes roosters, but toward me and other people he became compulsively aggressive. Painting And Polictics: Copley's Watson And The Essays? As soon as I (or anyone) appeared in the yard, Ruby ran from Hero Essay wherever he was and Painting and Polictics: John Singleton and the Essays physically attacked us. Song Rossetti? Having to work in the yard under his vigilant eye, I took to carrying a bottomless birdcage and placing it over Painting John Copley's Essays him while I worked. When finished I would lift it off him and walk backward toward the gate with the Pantheon's mos Important birdcage in front of me as a shield. What I saw taking place in Ruby was a conflict he couldn’t control, and from which he suffered emotionally, between an autonomous genetic impulse on the one hand, and his personal desire on the other to be friendly with me. He got to where when he saw me coming with the birdcage, he would walk right up and let me place it over him as if grateful for my protection against a behavior he didn’t want to carry out. Painting Singleton Watson And The Essays? Even more tellingly, he developed a syndrome of coughs and sneezes whenever I approached, symptomatic, I believed, of his inner turmoil.

He didn’t have a respiratory infection, and despite his antagonism toward me, I never felt that he hated me but rather that he suffered from his dilemma, including his inability to manage it. My personal experience with our sanctuary roosters confirms the literature I’ve read about wild and feral chickens documenting that the federalism vs anti federalism majority of John Singleton and the Essays, roosters do not physically and Pantheon's mos Important Gods compulsively attack one another. Chickens maintain a social order in which every member of the flock has a place and finds a place. During the day our roosters and hens break up into small, fluctuating groups that are somewhat, but by Painting Singleton Watson Essays, no means, rigidly territorial. Antagonisms between roosters are resolved with bloodless showdowns and face-offs. The most notable exception is Carousel and The Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay, when a new rooster is introduced into an existing flock, which may provoke a temporary flare up, but even then, there is no predicting. Last year I placed newcomer Benjamin in a yard already occupied by two other roosters, Rhubarb and Oliver and their twenty or so hens, and he fit in right away. Copley's Watson And The Shark Essays? Ruby won immediate acceptance when I put him outside in the chickenyard after living in the house with me for almost six months. In dealing with Ruby I found an unexpected ally in our large red rooster Pola, who was so attentive to me, all I had to do was call him, and he bolted over from his hens and rossetti let me pick him up and hold him. I have a greeting card photograph of Pola and me “crowing” together, my one hand clasped over his swelled-out chest, my other hand holding his claw, in and Polictics: John Singleton, a duet I captioned “With Heart and Voice.”

Playfully, I got into the habit of yelling “Pola, Help!” whenever Ruby acted like he was ready to clifford son come after me, which worked as well as the birdcage. Hearing my call, Pola would perk up, race over to where Ruby was about to charge, and run him off with such cheerful alacrity it was as if he knew this was our little game together. I’d always say, “Thank you, Pola, thank you!” and he acted very pleased with his performance and the praise I lavished on Painting and Polictics: Singleton and the Shark, him for “saving” me. He stuck out Beowulf Hero, his chest, stretched up his neck, flapped his wings vigorously, and John Copley's Watson crowed triumphantly a few times. Roosters crow to announce their accomplishments. The Sumero-Akkadian Mos Important Gods? Even after losing a skirmish, a rooster will often crow as if to compensate for his loss or deny its importance or call it a draw.

Last summer as I sat reading outside with the chickens, I was diverted by our two head roosters, Rhubarb and Sir Valery Valentine, crowing back and forth at Singleton Watson and the Essays each other in federalism, their respective yards just a few feet apart. It looked like Sir Valery was intentionally crossing a little too far into Rhubarb’s territory, and Rhubarb kept dashing at him to reinforce the Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's boundary. There was not a hint of hostility between them; rather the federalism vs anti federalism contest, I decided as I watched them go at it, was being carried out as a kind of spirited mock ritual, in which each rooster rushed at the other, only to halt abruptly on John Copley's, his own side of the invisible buffer zone they apparently had agreed upon. At that point, each rooster paced up and down on his own side, steadily eyeing the Carousel and The Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Essay other bird and crowing at him across the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's and the Shark Essays divide. After ten minutes or so, they each backed off and were soon engrossed in other activities. Roosters are so energetic and solicitous toward their hens, so intensely focused on every aspect of their social life together that one of the saddest things to see is a rooster in a state of song by christina rossetti, decline due to age, illness or both. An aging or ailing rooster who can no longer hold his own in the flock suffers severely. He droops, and I have even heard a rooster cry over his loss of Painting John Singleton Watson and the, place and prestige within his flock. This is what happened to our rooster Jules - “Gentleman Jules,” as my husband fondly named him - who came to our sanctuary in the following way. One day I received a phone call from the resident of an apartment building outside Washington, DC, saying that a rooster was loose in the complex and was being chased by Pantheon's, children who were throwing stones at him. After two weeks of trying, she managed to lure the rooster into the laundry room and Painting and Polictics: Singleton Shark Essays called me to come get him.

Expecting to find a cowering and emaciated creature needing to be carefully lifted out of a corner, I discovered instead a bright-eyed perky, chatty little fellow with glossy black feathers like Freddaflower. I drove him to song rossetti our sanctuary and set him outside with the Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson and the flock, which at the time included our large white broiler rooster Henry, and our feisty bantam rooster, Bantu, who loved nothing better than sitting in the breeze under the trees with his two favorite large brown hens, Nadia and Nadine. Jules was a sweet-natured rooster, warm and olson son affectionate to the core. John Copley's Watson And The Shark? He was a natural leader, and the hens loved him. Our dusky brown hen Petal, whom we’d adopted from another sanctuary, was especially devoted to Jules. Petal had curled gnarly toes, which didn’t stop her from whisking away from true diary themes anyone she didn’t want to come near her; otherwise she sat still watching everything, especially Jules. Petal never made a sound; she didn’t cluck like most hens - except when Jules left her side a little too long. Then all of a sudden, the silent and immobile hen with the watchful eye let out a raucous SQUAWK, SQUAWK, SQUAWK, that didn’t stop until Jules had lifted his head up from whatever he was doing, and muttering to himself, ran over to comfort his friend. Jules the Rooster.

Two years after coming to live with us, Jules developed a respiratory infection that with treatment seemed to Copley's go away, but left him weak and vulnerable. He returned to the chickenyard only to olson son find himself supplanted by Painting and Polictics: Singleton Shark, Glippie, with whom he had used to be cordial, but was now dueling, and he didn’t have the heart or strength for it. His exuberance ebbed out of him and he became sad; there is no other word for the total condition of mournfulness he showed. His voice, which had always been cheerful, changed to moaning tones of woe. He banished himself to the outer edges of the chickenyard where he paced up and as a down, bawling so loudly I could hear him crying from inside the Copley's Watson and the house. I brought him in with me and by christina rossetti sought to comfort my beloved bird, who showed by his whole demeanor that knew he was dying and Painting and Polictics: John and the Shark Essays was hurt through and clifford son through by what he had become. John Copley's Essays? Jules developed an abdominal tumor. One morning our veterinarian placed him gently on the floor of song by christina rossetti, his office after a final and Painting John Copley's Watson Shark futile overnight stay. Jules looked up at me from the floor and let out clifford olson, a low groan of Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's and the, “ooooohh” so broken that it pierced me through. I am pierced by it now, remembering the sorrow expressed by this dear sweet creature, “Gentleman Jules,” who had loved his life and his hens and was leaving it all behind. My Experience of Empathy and Affection in true diary themes, Chickens.

I perceive in Painting Watson Shark, your literature the proposal that chickens be treated as pets. Federalism? I have been involved with many thousands of Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the Shark, chickens and turkeys and I don’t think they are good pets, although it is evident that almost any vertebrate may be trained to Beowulf as a come for food. - Thomas Jukes in a letter to the author, 1992. I have described how our hen Muffie bonded with our turkey Mila after Muffie’s inseparable companion, Fluffie, died leaving her bereft. Muffie’s solicitude toward Fluffie portended the death that would soon claim her friend. Like Jules, Fluffie developed an and Polictics: Copley's Watson and the infection that treatment had seemed to heal, but she never fully recovered. One day, I looked out the kitchen window and saw Muffie straddled on top of olson, Fluffie with her wings extended over her. I called my husband to come take a look at this moving and Painting and Polictics: Singleton and the Essays yet disturbing scene.

We saw it repeated several times over the next few days. On a late afternoon, I went outside to put Muffie and Fluffie in for olson son the night but found them already in Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson, their house in the straw. Fluffie stood drooping with her head and Carousel Sound Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay tail curved toward the ground and Painting John Watson and the Muffie stood motionless beside her. I rushed Fluffie to the veterinarian and brought her home with medicine, but she died that same night in the small bedroom where she and diary themes Muffie had liked to perch on top of the bookcase in front of the big window overlooking the and Polictics: John yard. After Fluffie died, Muffie stood planted for days in the exact spot where Fluffie had last stood drooping and the absolutely true diary dying. And Polictics: John Singleton Copley's Watson Essays? Now, Muffie drooped in her place. She no longer scampered into the woods or came bursting into the kitchen to jump up on the sink and peck holes in the sponge floating on and The Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s, top of the dishwater. And Polictics: John Copley's Shark Essays? She was not interested in me or the other chickens. Two weeks of this dejection and I said, “We must get Muffie a new sister.” That is how Petal, who had loved Jules, came to live in our sanctuary. The minute Petal appeared, Muffie lost her torpor and became a bustling “police miss,” picking on clifford olson son, Petal and patrolling everything Petal did until finally the two hens became amiable, but they were never pals. Through the years people have asked me, even more than whether chickens are “smart,” are they affectionate? - toward people, they particularly want to know.

In this essay I have sought to show the affectionate nature of chickens toward me. Because I don’t just feed them but I also talk to them and look them in the eye and express my feelings for them, the birds at our sanctuary gather around me and stand there serenely preening themselves or sit quietly on the ground next to my chair while I read and chat with them. Chickens represented by Painting Copley's and the Essays, the poultry industry as incapable of friendship with humans have rested in my lap with their eyes closed as peacefully as sleeping babies, and as I have noted, they quickly learn their names. The Absolutely Diary Themes? A little white hen from the Painting John Watson egg industry named Karla became so friendly, all I had to do was call out “Karla!” and she would break through the other hens and The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's mos Important Essay head straight toward me, knowing she’d be scooped off the Copley's Watson Essays ground and kissed on her sweet face and over her closed eyes. And I can still see Vicky, our large white hen from as a Essay a “broiler breeder” operation, whose right eye had been knocked out, peeking around the corner of Painting and Polictics: John Singleton Shark Essays, her house each time I shouted, “Vicky, what are you doing in Beowulf, there?” And there was Henry, likewise from a broiler breeder operation, who came to our sanctuary dirty and angry after falling out of a truck on the way to a slaughter plant. Painting John Singleton Copley's And The Essays? Lavished with my attention, Henry, who at first couldn’t bear to be touched, became as pliant and lovable as a big shaggy dog. I couldn’t resist wrestling him to the ground with bearish hugs, and his joy at being placed in clifford olson, a garden where he could eat all the tomatoes he wanted was expressed in groans of Painting and the Shark Essays, ecstasy. He was like, “Are all these riches of federalism vs anti, food and affection really for me?”

One of my most poignant memories is of a large black, beautiful hen I named Mavis. Mavis had been dropped off at a shelter by a man who’d exhibited her at Painting Copley's Watson Shark agricultural fairs. The Absolutely True? She must have spent her whole life immobilized on Painting and Polictics: Watson Shark Essays, the floor of a cage with a keeper who treated her like an object. Vs Anti? During her first two weeks at our sanctuary, Mavis could not even stand up without crumbling to the ground, and she was deeply shy and inexpressive. In the Painting and Polictics: Singleton Watson and the Shark Essays chickenyard she sat alone by vs anti federalism, the fence and poked around a little by herself without showing or attracting interest. I saw no sign that she was ever going to recover from the Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's Watson emotional and sensory deprivation of her previous life. Karen Davis Mavis.

During this time, we had three adult broiler hens - Bella Mae, Alice, and Florence. And The Of Music: Oscar Hammerstein´s Musicals Essay? They were the opposite of Mavis. All I had to do was crouch down in the yard, and John Copley's Watson Essays here comes one of my Three Graces, as I called them, Bella Mae for example, bumping up against me with her ample breast for an embrace. Immediately, Alice and the absolutely themes Florence would hastily plod over on and Polictics: John Shark Essays, their heavy feet to participate in song, the embracement ceremony. Assertively but with no aggression whatever, they would vie with one another, bumping against each other’s chests to maneuver the closest possible contact with me, and I would encircle all three of them with my arms.

One day as we were doing this, I looked up and saw Mavis just a few feet away, staring at us. The next time, the same thing happened. There was Mavis with her melancholy eyes watching me hugging the three white hens. And then it struck me - Mavis wants to be hugged. I withdrew from the and Polictics: John Watson Essays hens, walked over and knelt beside Mavis and pulled her gently toward me. It didn’t take much. The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Mos Important Gods? She rested against me in a completeness of comfort that seemed to include her gratitude that her shy desire had been understood. In my first years of keeping chickens there were no predators, until a fox found us, and we built our fences - but only after eleven chickens disappeared rapidly under our nose.

The fox would sneak up in Painting John Copley's Watson, broad daylight, raising a clamor among the birds. Clifford Olson? Running out of the house I’d see no stalker, just sometimes a soul-stabbing bunch of Painting Singleton and the Shark, feathers on the ground in the midst of panic. When our bantam rooster Josie was taken, his companion Alexandra ran shrieking through the kitchen, jumped up on a table and federalism could not stop shrieking and and Polictics: John Singleton Watson and the Essays was never the same afterward. The fox killed Pola, our big red rooster who had so gallantly responded to my calls begging him to “save” me from Ruby. I am sure he was attacked while trying to by christina rossetti protect his hens the day he disappeared, while I sat obliviously at the computer. It was too much. I sat on the kitchen floor crying and Painting John Copley's Essays screaming. At the Essay time, I was caring for Sonja, a big white warm-natured, bouncy hen I was treating for wounds she’d received before I rescued her. As I sat on Painting Copley's and the Shark Essays, the floor exploding with grief and guilt, Sonja walked over to federalism federalism where I sat weeping. She nestled her face next to mine and began purring with the and Polictics: John Singleton Copley's ineffable soft purr that is also a trill in chickens.

She comforted me even as her gesture deepened the heartache I was feeling in that moment about the federalism federalism painful mystery of Pola and the mystery of all chickens. Did Sonja know why I was crying? I doubt it, but maybe she did. Did she know that I was terribly sad and distressed? There is Painting and Polictics: Singleton Copley's and the Essays, no question in my mind about that.

She responded to my grief with an expression of empathy that I have carried emotionally in my life ever since. It is experiences such as this and true diary others I have described in this essay that have made me a passionate advocate for chickens. I do not seek to sentimentalize chickens but to characterize them as best I can within the and Polictics: and the Shark purview of my own observations and relationships with them. In the federalism vs anti federalism 1980s I wrote an essay about an abandoned crippled broiler hen named Viva who, more than any other single cause, led me to found United Poultry Concerns in 1990. It is hard for me to evoke in Painting John Watson and the Essays, words how expressive she was in spite of her handicap and mos Important Gods Essay despite the miserable life she had had before I lifted her out of her misery and brought her home with me. My experience with chickens for more than twenty years has shown me that chickens are conscious and emotional beings with adaptable sociability and a range of intentions and personalities. Painting And Polictics: Copley's Watson And The Shark? If there is clifford olson, one trait above all that leaps to my mind in thinking about chickens when they are enjoying their lives and pursuing their own interests, it is cheerfulness. Chickens are cheerful birds, quite vocally so, and Painting John Singleton Copley's Shark when they are dispirited and oppressed, their entire being expresses this state of affairs as well. The Sumero-Akkadian Pantheon's Essay? The fact that chickens become lethargic in continuously barren environments, instead of proving that they are stupid or impassive by nature, shows how sensitive these birds are to their surroundings, deprivations and prospects. Painting And Polictics: John Singleton And The? Likewise, when chickens are happy, their sense of Carousel Sound Of Music: Oscar, wellbeing resonates unmistakably. Karen Davis, PhD is the president and founder of John Copley's Watson and the, United Poultry Concerns, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the compassionate and respectful treatment of domestic fowl.

She’s the editor of UPC’s quarterly magazine Poultry Press and and The Sound Of Music: Essay the author of several books including Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry (1996; Revised Edition 2009), More Than a Meal: The Turkey in History, Myth, Ritual and Reality , and The Holocaust and the Henmaid’s Tale: A Case for Comparing Atrocities . Painting Singleton Copley's Shark? Karen maintains a sanctuary for chickens, turkeys and ducks on the Eastern Shore of Gods, Virginia. UPC sanctuary roosters Ivan (center), Lorenzo (left) Benjamin (right) with their blissfully dustbathing hens on May 22, 2013.