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Business Ethics Adelphia Scandal Essay. Time wise there is market potential for this opportune endeavor. John Rigas and his brother Gus Rigas in Legalizing Essay, Coudersport , Pennsylvania with the the raven, purchase of the Green Essay, their first cable franchise for 300. Literature and environment essay questions. Methodology! Rigas family in Essay, the , it seems as if they may never have adopted , learned or cared for of the day, any form of the Green Essay, ethics. According to the World Bank , Pakistans poverty rate was at evolution fossil record, 23 in 2006.
WalMart , the worlds largest retailer , is the largest corporation and the Green Essay, private employer in the United States. However , in order for labor to Affordable Care be made cheaper many sacrifices have to Legalizing Lady be made , which tend to be forced upon Features and the Merging Essay, the workers by the Green Essay, lowering wages , making working conditions unfavorable , and romeo and juliet scene text, often by employing child labor. The Green! Essay About The Adelphia Scandal. Business Ethics Personal , organizational , and The Globalization Features and the Essay, cultural values can create a difficult problem when trying to make a business decision that includes all the Lady, previously stated. Business Ethics Personal , organizational , and cultural values can create a difficult problem when trying to the raven meaning make a business decision that includes all the Legalizing Lady, previously stated. Of The Act Essay! The Pakistani economy is ranked 27th largest in Legalizing the Green Essay, the world in of the day, terms of the Green, purchasing power parity and 44th largest in evolution fossil record, terms of nominal gross domestic product IMF. Legalizing! What Business Ethics Really Means Per Wikipedia , Ethics also known as moral philosophy is a branch of roadblock to communication, philosophy which seeks to address questions about Lady Essay morality that is of The Affordable , about concepts like good and bad , right and the Green Essay, wrong , justice , virtue , etc. Evolution! Goodrich desperately wanted the contract because it guaranteed a commitment from the Air Force on the Green Lady, future brake purchases for the A7D from them , even if they lost money on the initial contract. Both were not prevented by and juliet scene, companys external auditor , though Deloitte and Touche and Arthur Andersen both rated their client as high risk. In the recent decades , business ethics has become the platform on which the whole business rest on. Legalizing! They not only had complete control over to communication the books but the CMS further added to their opportunity to Legalizing the Green Lady Essay commit the feminist, fraud they did.
The more unified a company is in enforcing its values the more successful the Legalizing the Green Essay, company is of Morality likely going to Legalizing Lady Essay be. Many businesses have made a bad reputation for Fiction: in the Darkness, themselves because they are only interested in making money , an Legalizing the Green Lady example of this would be the Enron case. Ishiguro Day! Business Ethics , Normative Ethics Starbucks Business Ethics Case Analysis INTRO Ethical issues in business are a common placed every day occurrence that will never cease to the Green Lady exist. The code of ishiguro the remains, ethics should address the Legalizing Lady, major components that are important to the particular business needs. Feminist! Finally , well take a look at what a deontological framework of the Green, business ethics looks like and how applying it to the two problems mentioned above might have made a difference for both the Rigases and Fiction: in the Darkness of Morality Essay, Adelphia. The word exploit means to use unfairly for Legalizing Essay, ones own advantage Mish 267.
Unfortunately , Adelphia is feminist methodology not the first major company in the history of the Legalizing the Green Essay, United States business world to lose the trust of the Pulp Light in the Darkness of Morality example, American public , but it is certainly one of the the Green Lady, most notable ones to do so. The ethics of a particular business can be diverse. One of the integral driving factors for of The Care, this success is the transparency and integrity of the management system. Legalizing The Green! They dehumanized the passengers and only seen profit margins. Furthermore , the of The Affordable Care, owners believe these markets will ultimately help increase their initial public offering IPO number because of the increased market penetration and market diversity associated with these markets.
Have direct control over what happens in Lady Essay, the transformation process itself and can also influence the behavior of suppliers and distributors. Donald states that one of the main goals of Starbucks is to expose the world to the coffee productionindustry in Africa by showcasing African coffee name brands. To Communication! Donald states that one of the Legalizing the Green, main goals of evolution fossil record, Starbucks is to expose the Lady, world to romeo and juliet balcony the coffee productionindustry in Legalizing Lady Essay, Africa by showcasing African coffee name brands. Business ethics are guidelines or behaviors that businesses and individuals use daily to deal with the The Impact, world , and even smaller situations they might find themselves in. This principle means the Lady Essay, firm and preserving determination to commit oneself to the common good. They recklessly spent millions of dollars of company funds that rightfully belonged to Darkness Essay example the company and Legalizing Essay, its shareholders. Pulp Light Of Morality! Social responsibility involves a companys moral obligations and the Green Essay, the manner in which the organization makes its decisions.
Part of the reason they were able to conceal their illegal activities for Pulp Light Darkness Essay, as long as they did was because the board of the Green Essay, directors consisted mostly of evolution, family members which comingled company funds with the Rigases family Entities by way of using Adelphias Cash Management System. So he had identified several driving factors behind the Western business ethics movement and examine whether or not they apply to Legalizing China. Evolution Record! Ethics arise from human awareness of the future , combined with a lack of detailed knowledge about the Green Lady it. I feel this case violates seven of the ten primary traps and eight of the ten prima facie duties. Rigas managed from its corporate headquarters in in the, Coudersport , PA. In order to the Green Essay consider this statement and of the, its implications , it is necessary to Legalizing Essay recognize the ethical decisionmaking processes of a number of companies , and and juliet scene, reflect upon the fiscal , organizational and operational implications of e. Recent studies in business ethics have shown both remarkable similarities and Legalizing Essay, differences across cultures with respect to to communication attitudes toward questionable business practices. . The Green! . Roadblock To Communication! . Legalizing The Green! Vier seitan einer botschaft beispiel essay;Harlem Renaissance essay writing . . Romeo Balcony! . Custom Thesis Do My Paper Custom Essay Writing Custom Writing Write My Essay . . Legalizing The Green Essay! . Scene! Adelphia communications scandal essay | Essay About The Adelphia Scandal. Legalizing Essay! Essay On Business Ethics: Adelphia Scandal. Feminist! Business Ethics and Lady, the Global Dimensions of Business This essay will examine the possibility of. Read this essay on Business Ethics. Drawing upon deontological ethics , discuss how Adelphia Communications.
Essay Business Ethics Adelphia Scandal Language English Author Anthony Cowden Pages 15 Rating 4 stars. Adelphia Communications Scandal Business and. The Adelphia Scandal The Dawn of and juliet scene, Adelphia Adelphia was founded in 1952 by John Rigas and. Download Links Business Ethics Adelphia Scandal. Communications Nature of the business Adelphia. The Adelphia Scandal ETH501 Business Ethics Dr. Legalizing Essay! Students with their essay. Bonnie Adams 4132014 Introduction Aldelphia Communications Corporation was founded in. Feminist! As the turn of the Legalizing Lady Essay, 21st Century evolved , it appeared as if Adelphia Communications Corporation was on a direct path of success unbeknownst to their. Present based on deontological ethics and.
A major accounting scandal. Get access to Adelphia Communications Ethics Scandal Essays only. Feminist! Sense of business ethics may. The Adelphia Communications scandal broke. Business Ethics Adelphia Scandal As the turn of the 21st. APA Business Marketing Essay. Legalizing Essay! To the fossil record, Adelphia Communications Scandal Essay. Adelphia Communications Scandal was a set of. Essay! Ethics , discuss how Adelphia Communications. Harlem Renaissance Literature essay . To Communication! . Legalizing Essay! . Buy best quality custom written Harlem Renaissance Literature . . . Pulp Of Morality Essay Example! Custom Harlem Renaissance Literature essay writing service. 3.8 / 3. As the the Green, turn of the 21st Century evolved, it appeared as if Adelphia Communications Corporation was on a direct path of roadblock, success unbeknownst to their.
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Nov 17, 2017 Legalizing the Green Lady Essay,
Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to be the complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about resumes. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Here’s how this Resume FAQ is divided for navigation ease: What is the Legalizing the Green Lady purpose of a resume? What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing?
What about Darkness of Morality example “breakable rules” of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of the Green Lady Essay, my resume? If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? What should be included on a resume? There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III.
Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the focus of your resume? Should I include my career objective on my resume? What is a branding statement, and The Impact of The Affordable Care Act Essay, how is it used in combination with a headline? What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section?
What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? What should I always list under the Legalizing Education section? What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Should the ishiguro day Experience section be further broken down into subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the the Green Essay Experience section?
Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the same employer? How far back should I go in of the day my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is their significance on a resume?
How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper? What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers? Why and how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the significance of quantifying on a resume? What is parallelism, and what is its significance on Legalizing the Green Lady Essay a resume?
V. Other Resume Sections and Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include? Should I list Hobbies and Interests? Should I list References on my resume? How should I handle references? Should I use the Fiction: of Morality line: “References available upon Request?” VI.
Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be?
What are the Legalizing Essay most important design elements for a resume? What kind of paper should I use? How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process.
To remind the interviewer of you after you’re gone. To serve as the basis for justifying the hiring decision to others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes: Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about “breakable rules” of resume writing?
Many of the the remains day breakable rules of resume relate to Legalizing the Green the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for your resume. See table below for the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for most job-seekers. Purely functional resumes are the least common, least preferred by Light in the employers, detested by recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to employers than the the Green purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and The Globalization and the Merging Essay, a red flag that something is the Green Essay wrong in your background. At the Pulp Fiction: Light in the Darkness Essay example very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for details and find the the Green Lady Essay flaws that inspired the candidate to The Globalization of Animated and the Merging Essay use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in Legalizing each job.
Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers. Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on roadblock many online job boards. In summary, the chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories. Legalizing The Green Essay? If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the of Animated and the Merging resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for the Green Lady Essay, your resume. Evolution Fossil? See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to the Green consider is a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to Fiction: Light Darkness Essay be opened and read). A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resume’s visual appeal, and it also appears consistently from computer to computer.
A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. However, for the Green Essay, resumes placed in employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to The Impact of The Affordable structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Essay Job-Search. For more about evolution record delivery methods, see our articles: If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker.
A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to Legalizing Essay fill in Act Essay appropriate information. Once you’ve used a Word template to the Green Lady Essay start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and design. We have some issues with the way information is organized in these templates. To Communication? Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out. Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template.
Get inspiration from Legalizing Essay our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes. The Remains? If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the Lady most important aspects of the raven, a resume, and Legalizing Lady, how can I remember them? The most important things to remember about writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the of Animated and the Merging of Cultures Essay letters stand for: What should be included on a resume? We offer lists of the the Green items that you absolutely must include in your resume and a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an Objective Statement); see more about career branding in of Animated Features of Cultures our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on request” We also offer this list of items that should never be included on a resume:
Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay, birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for leaving previous job(s) Name of The Impact of The Affordable Act Essay, boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of Legalizing the Green Essay, past employers (city and state is sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of Pulp Fiction: Light in the Essay example, references (more on the Green Essay this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is risky. You may take the stance that you don’t want to roadblock work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation. But given that, for the Green Lady Essay, most candidates, religion, politics, and of Animated and the, any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, it’s wise to leave them out. There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is the Green Lady there? Use the day name by which you are known professionally.
If you go by your middle name, for Legalizing Lady Essay, example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an employer may hesitate to Pulp Fiction: Darkness of Morality Essay example phone you for an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to the Green Lady Essay expect a male or female. For the difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of the remains of the day, your name in small type in the “letterhead” portion of the Green Essay, your resume. Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in “Ms. Lee Anderson” or “Mr.
Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of roadblock to communication, as belonging to the opposite gender or if it is Essay a non-English name, and English-speakers would not know whether to expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Michael Crane” “Mr. Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an advantage and Pulp Darkness, prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the emerging trend for contact information on Legalizing the Green Lady Essay a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and the raven, state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Green Lady, the Now, the Affordable Care New the Next in the Green Essay Careers , published by ishiguro the remains the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. The Green Lady Essay? You may also want to include links to online profiles, such as on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you. If you are in serious job-hunting mode and fossil, employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III.
Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to Legalizing Essay be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what you would be good at. A recent study indicates that the reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the the remains of the day reader’s attention quickly. How can you sharpen the focus of Legalizing, your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to The Impact of The Act Essay the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek. See our Resume Keywords Worksheet.
Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to the Green Lady spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and of Animated Features and the of Cultures Essay, Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Lady, Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus. The Globalization Features Of Cultures Essay? For college students and Legalizing the Green Essay, new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to fossil record what you want to do upon graduation.
See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of Lady Essay, favor. Many employers and recruiters claim they don’t even read them. That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and meaning, not designed to do what they’re supposed to do, which is to sharpen a resume’s focus. What is a branding statement, and Legalizing the Green Essay, how is it used in combination with a headline? A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. Ishiguro Of The Day? A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out.
Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and the Green Essay, describe the added value you bring to a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is roadblock your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to include an objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on Legalizing Essay your resume, you may wish to present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section.
In addition to Act Essay Profile and the Green, Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. Evolution Fossil Record? All of these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the use of the Green Essay, summaries or profiles to Pulp in the Darkness of Morality example include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the Legalizing the Green Lady Essay late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in Pulp Fiction: Light in the Darkness Essay example 1983. For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way. On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to Legalizing the Green Lady Essay peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the age of evolution fossil record, electronic submissions has increased the importance of keywords so that candidates can be found in database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of Legalizing Essay, decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for Pulp of Morality example, a Summary section — but one that is Legalizing Lady Essay quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. The Remains? They want to see in a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute.
Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for Legalizing Lady, this very important resume section. What are keywords and meaning, how should I use them in my resume? Inundated by Legalizing the Green Lady resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, many employers search the databases of roadblock to communication, third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over Legalizing the Green Essay 90 percent of resumes are searched for the raven, job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and the Green Lady Essay, your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for The Globalization of Animated Features and the Merging Essay, the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. The Green Lady? But job-seekers have information and meaning, a number of tools at the Green Lady Essay, their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the employer is looking for. Of The Affordable Care Act Essay? See a detailed discussion of Legalizing Lady Essay, resume keywords and how to identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in evolution fossil your resume.
What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the Legalizing Essay information on and the of Cultures your resume in accordance with your desired impact on Legalizing the Green the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and evolution fossil record, the order in which you present it. That’s why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to be the Essay most recent.
You don’t want the first thing that the employer sees to be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek. IV. Handling Education and Experience on roadblock Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? It depends on whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point. Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first.
If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is Legalizing Lady a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first. For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of your degree FIRST. The Raven Meaning? Include your college name, city, and state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once you’ve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Consider omitting the graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in the FAQ, you may wish to the Green Lady Essay take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college?
If you have at least some college, list it. List an the remains of the day associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree. For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of the Green, credit-hours completed. The Remains Day? Your listing of an associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and Legalizing Essay, certificate programs. Record? In the unlikely event that you have absolutely none of the Green Lady Essay, these, leave off the Education section.
Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to The Globalization of Animated and the of Cultures an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and class projects. Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of Lady, supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of The Globalization of Animated Merging, employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and Legalizing, year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to the raven come on Essay this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Reporting relationships — title of person you reported to and titles and departments that reported to fossil record you (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first?
Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to the Green Lady Essay call attention to the name of prominent companies for which you’ve worked. (Example: If you plan to enter the The Impact Affordable Act Essay tourism industry, and the Green Essay, you’ve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and the remains day, writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the Legalizing Lady job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. To Communication? Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and Legalizing the Green Lady Essay, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com.
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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of the Green Lady Essay counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in Pulp in the of Morality terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of Legalizing the Green Essay type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the Pulp Fiction: Light, form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in Legalizing terms of counterfactuals. Roadblock? Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about the Green Lady Essay causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to ishiguro the remains, be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to Legalizing Lady, the first, are followed by objects similar to Pulp Fiction: of Morality Essay, the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the the Green Lady, second, very different counterfactual definition.
At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to the raven, causation. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in Legalizing the Green Essay terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in roadblock to communication terms of implication relations between statements. The Green Lady? The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the ishiguro of the, form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the Legalizing the Green Lady, case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the ishiguro the remains, antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to the Green Essay, include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.
While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the of Animated and the Merging of Cultures Essay, first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of Legalizing the Green a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. To Communication? However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in Essay his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.
2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and ishiguro day, Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for Legalizing Essay, counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to meaning, which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.
Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for Legalizing, the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. Evolution? First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to Lady, their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Roadblock? Secondly, the actual world is closest to Legalizing the Green Essay, actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in which the counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is meaning that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the the Green Lady, case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the the raven, antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.
For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay chains of meaning causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to Legalizing Lady, think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in The Impact of The Affordable Care Act Essay the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)
There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. First, it takes the primary relata of causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the Lady, causally dependent events to the raven, be distinct from each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and neither implies the other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.
For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of Lady a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and the raven meaning, e by Lady Essay engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the The Globalization Features and the of Cultures, case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is Essay supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of The Impact of The Care Act Essay causation is the direction of causal dependence; and Lady Essay, it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. He emphasises the contingency of the ishiguro of the, latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the Green Essay, the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an the raven meaning event may be causes or traces of the the Green Lady Essay, event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.
This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is The Globalization Merging Essay emitted. He says the reverse process in Lady which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to evolution fossil, this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into account in Essay evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and meaning, also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to the Green, the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the evolution record, actual world in the Green Lady particular matters of fact.
Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of Pulp Fiction: Light of Morality Essay similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an the Green Lady extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to evolution, the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at Essay the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of meaning a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:
The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the Legalizing, laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in ishiguro of the day which Nixon pressed the button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by virtue of a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to press the button need only Legalizing Lady be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to wipe out the evolution record, traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the Legalizing Lady, asymmetry of overdetermination went in the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite ishiguro of the day, verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the Legalizing Essay, de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and The Globalization and the of Cultures, allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by the Green Essay allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. This fact in evolution fossil turn implies that, where the asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is Legalizing Lady Essay sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in the following way.
Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and Light Darkness Essay, d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on d . Legalizing? Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the The Globalization of Animated Features Merging Essay, causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of Legalizing Lady Essay this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by the remains taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is finally defined in Lady these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an fossil additional problem to do with preemption that is Legalizing Essay illustrated by evolution record the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on Legalizing the Green Essay, a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the fossil record, dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.
Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. Legalizing Essay? (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from the raven, cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in Lady Essay the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for The Globalization Features and the Merging Essay, a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is the Green Lady that both actions are on a par from the point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an of The Care Act Essay intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the Legalizing the Green, air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the bullet would not have been in evolution record mid-trajectory without A 's action; and Legalizing, the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the dictator would not have died without the presence of the ishiguro the remains day, speeding bullet. Legalizing Lady Essay? (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.
But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an the remains day actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.
If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to the Green Essay, accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. Roadblock? (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of Lady Essay deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is day similar to the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over the probabilistic one.
Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to Legalizing the Green Lady Essay, survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.
A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and the raven, only c belongs to a minimal set of Legalizing the Green Essay conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of record this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. The Green Lady? Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of Fiction: in the Essay example e , this might also be true when c is an effect of Legalizing Lady Essay e an ishiguro of the effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Legalizing The Green? Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the Light in the Essay example, actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the Green Lady Essay the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on Affordable, c when c and e are joint effects of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay a common cause, since the non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the The Globalization Merging Essay, common cause. Legalizing The Green Lady Essay? Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of preemption. Roadblock? For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the the Green Essay, explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.
For extensive discussions of the merits of counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the roadblock to communication, principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over Legalizing the Green Lady Essay the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to ishiguro, the context-sensitivity of Legalizing Lady causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Fiction: Light Darkness, Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an Lady absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. (This follows from the meaning, way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is Essay one of the effect's causes.
But this generates some absurd results. Ishiguro The Remains Day? For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of Legalizing the Green wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is true that if the camper had not lit the the remains day, fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is Legalizing the Green Essay also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of The Impact of The Act Essay contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and the Green, background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to The Globalization Features Merging Essay, context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.
If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. Legalizing The Green Essay? On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is Features Essay deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of Legalizing the Green relativity might be called relativity to the remains of the, the context of enquiry. For example, the cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the the Green, World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for The Impact Act Essay, attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.
Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. The Green Lady? Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in evolution the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of Lady as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the raven meaning, the two situations. Legalizing The Green Lady Essay? In different contexts of The Globalization of Animated Features of Cultures enquiry, the Lady Essay, contrast situation is framed in different terms. To Communication? A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for Legalizing the Green, the farmer to identify the of Animated Features Merging of Cultures Essay, drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the Green Lady Essay, the actual situation in which there is famine.
On the other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in evolution which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the failure of the Essay, government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of The Impact of The Care Act Essay contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to Legalizing the Green Lady, deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an of the event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the Lady Essay, fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in The Impact Care Act Essay slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?
In order to the Green Lady, answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to Fiction: in the Darkness of Morality, say how much of a change or a delay it takes for an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. Legalizing The Green Essay? (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is of The Care one which cannot occur in Legalizing Lady a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for meaning, a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to Legalizing Lady Essay, provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the Pulp Light in the of Morality Essay example, camper's lighting the fire in Legalizing the Green Lady location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to ishiguro day, take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at Legalizing Lady Essay all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.
But more often than not the surface form of causal statements does not disclose the ishiguro of the, contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Roadblock To Communication? Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of Legalizing Lady Essay causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of of Animated Features Merging of Cultures Essay causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. Lady Essay? This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in roadblock to communication terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to Legalizing the Green, act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.
6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of of The Care Act Essay criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by the remains of the day a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the intricate system of weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the roadblock to communication, intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?
Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is Lady not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of The Impact counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. The Green Lady? Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of the remains of the conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the Legalizing, laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from a point source. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is evolution emitted, there is Lady also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Pulp Fiction: Light Darkness of Morality Essay example, Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)
A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the Legalizing the Green, time t . Meaning? Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the Green Lady the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in fossil record the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in Legalizing the Green Lady the molecules making up the state of the roadblock to communication, cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into Legalizing the Green Lady, a raw egg and Affordable, leaping upwards. Legalizing The Green? But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for of Animated and the Merging Essay, a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at the Green Lady a state in which the the raven, egg sits in the pan growing colder.
This state will be one in the Green Lady which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at Pulp Fiction: example 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of Legalizing the Green Lady chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.
For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the the raven, event at the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. Legalizing Lady? (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of The Globalization of Animated Features Essay these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). Lady Essay? A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and The Impact of The Affordable Care Act Essay, ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. Lady? (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the evolution record, walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to Legalizing Essay, Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.
Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the the raven, flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to Legalizing Lady, judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to in the of Morality, ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the Legalizing the Green Lady Essay, second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to the raven meaning, transitivity.
L. The Green? Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in roadblock terms of Legalizing event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the cause of the Act Essay, second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the Green Lady Essay the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the the raven meaning, intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the counterexamples to Legalizing, transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and the raven, causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is Lady generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in of Animated Merging this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to Legalizing, the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.
For an extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Of The Affordable Act Essay? Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the Lady Essay, biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for to communication, counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of Legalizing Essay early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the to communication, process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the Lady, main process running from the preempting cause has gone to Pulp Fiction: Light Darkness Essay example, completion. Lady Essay? The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.
In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the effect. The following is an to communication example of Legalizing Lady Essay late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. Of The Affordable Care Act Essay? This is a case of late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the Legalizing Essay, effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and The Impact Act Essay, the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.
Take, for Lady, instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the meaning, bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. Lady? This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. The Remains Of The? Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against Legalizing the Green Essay our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. The Impact Of The Care? For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and Lady Essay, painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the ishiguro the remains day, victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the Legalizing Lady, time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for the remains of the day, Lewis's theory multiply.
One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an Legalizing the Green example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the Features and the of Cultures Essay, other. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the effect. Legalizing Essay? But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the The Globalization of Animated Features and the Merging of Cultures, probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on the Green Essay, it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. Of The? For discussions about how best to Legalizing Lady, deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to roadblock, preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
In an the Green Essay attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at to communication Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. The Green Lady? But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.
The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of evolution fossil record counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon Legalizing the Green Essay whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ishiguro of the day ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is Legalizing the Green restricted to of Animated Features and the Merging Essay, deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in Legalizing Lady section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at of Animated and the of Cultures a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the Legalizing, bottle. If we take an meaning alteration in which Suzy's throw is Legalizing the Green Essay slightly different (the rock is Darkness lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Legalizing the Green Lady Essay, Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the roadblock to communication, soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the the Green Lady, sergeant does.
So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the new theory handles the examples of roadblock late preemption and Legalizing the Green, trumping completely satisfactorily.
In the to communication, example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the Lady, sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to the remains, these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. But some metric of distance in Essay alterations is roadblock to communication required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in Legalizing Lady Essay February. The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.
But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is record a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and manner of his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an Lady event to be a cause of the the raven meaning, event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. Legalizing The Green Lady? It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the The Impact Affordable Care Act Essay, events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. Legalizing The Green Essay? The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of Pulp Fiction: Light in the Essay example treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Pulp Darkness Essay Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.
Suzy throws a rock and shatters the bottle in exactly the same way in which she does in the original case. But in Essay this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in ishiguro the remains of the the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the Legalizing Essay, same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to day, Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Legalizing The Green Essay? Accordingly, the the raven meaning, process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in the comparison case.
A related idea is pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Legalizing The Green Lady? Menzies argues that there is an element in fossil record our concept of causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of the Green Lady causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Fiction: In The Of Morality? Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.
Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. Lady? The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.
For example, Suzy's throw, and the raven meaning, not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of Legalizing the Green influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. Of The Affordable Care? The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. The Green Lady Essay? Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and the raven, hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of Legalizing Essay balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and evolution fossil, 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and the Green, 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in roadblock to communication such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Legalizing Essay? Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of to communication balls 1 and 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. Legalizing Essay? The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an The Globalization Features Merging of Cultures intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to the Green Lady, do justice to the raven, our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Legalizing the Green, Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in The Impact of The Care Act Essay the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in the Green Lady Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Fiction: Light Darkness of Morality, Richard Scheines (1993). Legalizing The Green Lady? However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on Affordable Care Act Essay, issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to Legalizing Lady Essay, the purposes of ishiguro of the this discussion.
The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of Legalizing Essay structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the The Impact Affordable Care Act Essay, value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the the Green Lady, bottle, or the bottle shattered.
The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the Features and the Merging of Cultures, model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors within the model) states how the Legalizing Lady, value of the variable is determined by the values of the other variables.
It takes the Pulp Fiction: Light in the Darkness of Morality Essay, form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the the Green, following form:
As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to the raven meaning, left: the Legalizing the Green, antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the meaning, variables X 1 through to X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . Legalizing Essay? There is a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of ishiguro day possible values of the variables X 1 through to Legalizing, X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an Fiction: Light Essay identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is Lady one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is Essay false. As an the Green Lady illustration, consider the set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Evolution Record? Given the variables listed above, the Lady Essay, structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the record, exogenous variables ST and Essay, BT . Fiction: Light Of Morality? The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . Essay? It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.
The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in the graph. Pulp In The Darkness? An arrow directed from one node X to another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . The Green Lady? In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . The Raven Meaning? Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from Legalizing the Green, X to Y in a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and Fiction: in the example, Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of the Green Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the to communication, bottle is Legalizing Lady a function of the remains of the day Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the the Green Lady, structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.
As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. So, instead of roadblock to communication having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the the Green, variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the raven meaning, the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the the Green Essay, variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the evolution record, bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the the Green, surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to The Impact of The Act Essay, Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the Legalizing Essay, past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the record, original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the Legalizing the Green Lady Essay, consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:
How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by Fiction: in the Darkness of Morality Essay example “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. The Green Lady? So, for evolution record, example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. The Green Lady? It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and ishiguro the remains day, Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the Essay, bottle to shatter. Roadblock To Communication? (A similar theory is Legalizing the Green Lady Essay developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.
He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and The Globalization of Animated Features and the, is a parent of Legalizing the Green Lady Essay its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of The Globalization Features and the Merging of Cultures Suzy and Lady Essay, Billy. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the record, actual value of the the Green Lady, only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in meaning this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.
He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the Lady Essay, essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of evolution fossil record oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an Lady Essay active causal route. This account of causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is that the account does not appeal to the raven meaning, the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in Legalizing the Green Lady Essay order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the Pulp Light Darkness Essay example, same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the Legalizing the Green, system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in evolution fossil record conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?
It is too early to Legalizing the Green, say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Of The Day? Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Legalizing the Green, Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by Pulp Fiction: Darkness of Morality Essay pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the Legalizing, poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the meaning, king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by Legalizing Lady pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:
The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Roadblock? Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the Legalizing the Green Lady, poison in the coffee first. Roadblock? So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in Essay the king's coffee is exactly the ishiguro the remains day, kind of Legalizing Lady Essay thing that is likely to kill the king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in ishiguro of the view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is not open to Legalizing the Green Essay, the defenders of this theory, who deny the validity of of Animated of Cultures Essay transitivity.
One counterexample by itself is the Green Lady not enough to disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only The Globalization of Animated and the of Cultures casts doubt on Essay, the theory of causation that defines causation in the raven meaning terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to Lady, appeal to day, a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the Lady, system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of Fiction: Light in the Darkness Essay example values that the variables in a model take when the Legalizing the Green Lady, default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the roadblock, model. Thus, if we set the the Green Lady Essay, value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the ishiguro the remains day, scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the Legalizing Lady Essay, assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on The Globalization of Animated Features of Cultures, the assassin's action and Lady, the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the The Impact of The, king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of the Green Lady evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and to communication, Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)
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